Supplementation with 3 compositionally different tocotrienol supplements does not improve cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with hypercholesterolemia

Mustad VA, Smith CA, Ruey PP, Edens NK, DeMichele SJ.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76(6):1237-43.

Background: Tocotrienols have been reported to lower LDL-cholesterol and fasting glucose concentrations and to have potent antioxidant effects, but the results are contradictory.

Objective: The objective was to study the relative effect of tocotrienol supplements of different compositions (mixed alpha- plus gamma-, high gamma-, or P25-complex tocotrienol) on blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, and the excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha), a measure of oxidative stress, in healthy hypercholesterolemic men and women.

Design: This was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-design study in which subjects (n = 67 men and women) consumed 1 of 3 commercially available tocotrienol supplements or a safflower oil placebo for 28 d. Blood and urine samples were obtained before and after the 28-d supplementation phase for analysis of fasting blood lipids, glucose, tocotrienols and tocopherols, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha).

Results: Overall, serum tocotrienols were increased in subjects who consumed tocotrienols, which showed that the putatively active components were absorbed. No significant differences in mean lipid or glucose concentrations were observed among the 4 treatment groups at the end of the 28-d supplementation phase. However, when the values were expressed as a percentage change from the concentrations during the presupplementation run-in phase, LDL cholesterol increased slightly (7 +/- 2%) but significantly (P < 0.05) in the group consuming the mixed alpha- plus gamma-tocotrienol supplement when compared with LDL cholesterol in the group consuming the P25-complex tocotrienol. Neither mean concentrations nor the percentage change in 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) differed significantly among treatments.

Conclusion: Supplementation with 200 mg tocotrienols/d from 3 commercially available sources has no beneficial effect on key cardiovascular disease risk factors in highly compliant adults with elevated blood lipid concentrations.

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This study examined the effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) obtained from palm oil on the healing of aspirin-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into three groups. Group I was fed a vitamin E-deficient diet (control), Group II was fed a vitamin E-deficient diet supplemented with tocopherol (300 mg/kg food) and Group III was fed a vitamin E-deficient diet supplemented with TRF (300 mg/kg food). After eight weeks, the control and treated groups received a single intragastric dose of 400 mg/kg body weight aspirin. The rats were killed 24 h after exposure to aspirin. Assessment of gastric lesions showed a lower gastric lesion index in the TRF (P = 0.0005) and tocopherol groups (P = 0.0008) compared to the control. The gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) content was also lower in the TRF (P = 0.025) and tocopherol groups (P = 0.025) compared to control. There were, however, no significant differences in the gastric lesion index and gastric MDA content between the TRF and tocopherol-fed groups. There were no significant differences in the adherent gastric mucous concentration and gastric acid concentration among all groups. We conclude that the TRF and tocopherol are equally effective in preventing aspirin-induced gastric lesions. The most probable mechanism is through their ability to limit lipid peroxidation, which is involved in aspirin-induced gastric lesions.

Supplementation with 3 compositionally different tocotrienol supplements does not improve cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with hypercholesterolemia

Mustad VA, Smith CA, Ruey PP, Edens NK, DeMichele SJ.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76(6):1237-43.

Published

Objectives: The objective was to study the relative effect of tocotrienol supplements of different compositions (mixed alpha- plus gamma-, high gamma-, or P25-complex tocotrienol) on blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, and the excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha), a measure of oxidative stress, in healthy hypercholesterolemic men and women.

Study design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel-design study

Subjects: Healthy hypercholesterolemic subjects

Intervention: Mixed tocotrienol versus placebo (safflower oil)

Primary outcome: Fasting blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, and the excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha), a measure of oxidative stress.

Methodology: In this study, subjects consumed 1 of 3 commercially available tocotrienol supplements or a safflower oil placebo for 28 days. Blood and urine samples were obtained before and after the 28-d supplementation phase for analysis of fasting blood lipids, glucose, tocotrienols and tocopherols, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha).

Results: Overall, serum tocotrienols were increased in subjects who consumed tocotrienols, which showed that the putatively active components were absorbed. No significant differences in mean lipid or glucose concentrations were observed among the 4 treatment groups at the end of the 28-dsupplementation phase. However, when the values were expressed as a percentage change from the concentrations during the presupplementation run-in phase, LDL cholesterol increased slightly (7 +/- 2%) but significantly (P < 0.05) in the group consuming the mixed alpha- plus gamma-tocotrienol supplement when compared with LDL cholesterol in the group consuming the P25-complex tocotrienol. Neither mean concentrations nor the percentage change in 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) differed significantly among treatments.

Conclusion: Supplementation with 200 mg tocotrienols/d from 3 commercially available sources has no beneficial effect on key cardiovascular disease risk factors in highly compliant adults with elevated blood lipid concentrations.

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Tocotrienols-rich diet decreases advanced glycosylation end-products in non-diabetic rats and improves glycemic control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Wan Nazaimoon WM, Khalid BA.

Malays J Pathol. 2002 Dec;24(2):77-82.

This study determined the effects of palm vitamin E (TRF) diet on the levels of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (gHb), serum advanced glycosylation end-products (AGE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) of diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats received either control (normal rat chow), TRF diet (normal chow fortified with TRF at 1 g/kg) or Vitamin C diet (vitamin E-deficient but contained vitamin C at 45 g/kg). The animals were maintained on the respective diet for 4 weeks, made diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ), then followed-up for a further 8 weeks. At week-4, mean serum AGE levels of rats given TRF diet (0.7 +/- 0.3 units/ml) were significantly lower than those of control or Vitamin C diet rats (p pounds 0.03). The levels increased after STZ and became comparable to the other groups. At week 12, blood glucose (20.9 +/- 6.9 mM) and gHb (10.0 +/- 1.6%) of rats on TRF diet remained significantly low compared to that of control or Vitamin C diet rats (p pounds 0.03). MDA however, was not affected and remained comparable between groups throughout the study. This study showed that TRF may be a useful antioxidant; effectively prevented increase in AGE in normal rats, and caused decrease in blood glucose and gHb in diabetic rats. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of action of TRF.

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