Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is angiogenic and effective in down-regulating excess collagen production. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin E (Tocotrienol Rich Fraction) in altering the level of bFGF, a cytokine involved in the scar formation process. In this model, normal human fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of vitamin E at different time frames. The levels of bFGF were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA). This study demonstrated that Tocotrienol Rich Fraction (TRF) stimulated bFGF production by fibroblast and postulate that vitamin E may decrease aberrant scar formation.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E on the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rat bones. Fifty-six normal male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 3 months, were randomly divided into seven groups with eight rats in each group. The age-matched control group was given the vehicle olive oil, by oral gavage daily. Six of the treatment groups received either palm tocotrienol or pure alpha-tocopherol at the dose of 30, 60 or 100 mg/kg body weight, by oral gavage daily, 6 days a week for 4 months. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) that is an index to measure the level of lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels were measured in the femur at the end of the study. Palm tocotrienol at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the TBARS level in the femur with a significant increase in glutathione peroxidase activity compared to the age-matched control group. These were not observed in the alpha-tocopherol groups. Palm tocotrienol was more effective than pure alpha-tocopherol acetate in suppressing lipid peroxidation in bone. Palm tocotrienol showed better protective effect against free radical damage in the femur compared to alpha-tocopherol. This study suggests that palm tocotrienol plays an important role in preventing imbalance in bone metabolism due to free radicals.
The effect of different isomers of tocotrienol was tested on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Although all of the tocotrienol isomers offered some degree of cardioprotection, gamma-tocotrienol was the most protective as evident from the result of myocardial apoptosis. To study the mechanism of tocotrienol mediated cardioprotection, we examined the interaction and/or translocation of different signaling components to caveolins and activity of proteasome. The results suggest that differential interaction of MAP kinases with caveolin 1/3 in conjuncture with proteasome stabilization play a unique role in tocotrienol mediated cardioprotection possibly by altering the availability of pro-survival and anti-survival proteins.