Aim: Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 30-40% of patients with type I and 15% with type II diabetes mellitus develop end stage renal disease. The study was designed to evaluate the impact of tocotrienol on renal function and reno-inflammatory cascade in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
Main Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were treated with tocotrienol (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg), alpha-tocopherol (100 mg/kg) or with vehicle form 5th to 8th weeks. After 8 weeks, urine albumin excretion, urine output, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and urea clearance were measured. Cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of kidney was prepared for the quantification of oxidative-nitrosative stress (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, non protein thiols, total nitric oxide), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), tissue growth factor-1beta (TGF-beta1), p65 subunit of NFkappabeta and caspase-3.
Key Findings: After 8 weeks of STZ injection, the rats produced significant alteration in renal function, increased oxidative-nitrosative stress, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, caspase-3 activity in cytoplasmic lysate and active p65 subunit of NFkappabeta in nuclear lysate of kidney of diabetic rats. Interestingly, co-administration of tocotrienol significantly and dose-dependently prevented biochemical and molecular changes associated with diabetes. Tocotrienol (100 mg/kg) was demonstrated to be more effective than alpha-tocopherol (100 mg/kg). Moreover, diabetic rats treated with insulin-tocotrienol combination produced more pronounced effect on molecular parameters as compared to their respective groups.
Significance: Taken together, the data reveal that tocotrienol modulates the release of profibrotic cytokines, oxidative stress, ongoing chronic inflammation and apoptosis and thus exerts a marked renoprotective effect.
Diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus, is recognised as one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. The development of tolerance, inadequate relief and potential toxicity of classical antinociceptives warrant the investigation of the newer agents to relieve this pain. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, cytokines and apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of tocotrienol on thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, allodynia, oxidative-nitrosative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes. Diabetic rats developed neuropathy which was evident from a marked hyperalgesia and allodynia associated with enhanced nitrosative stress, release of inflammatory mediators (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, TGF-1beta) and caspase-3. Chronic treatment with tocotrienol (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) for 4 weeks starting from the 4th week of streptozotocin injection significantly attenuated behavioral, biochemical and molecular changes associated with diabetic neuropathy. Moreover, diabetic rats treated with insulin-tocotrienol combination produced more pronounced beneficial effect as compared to their per se groups. The major finding of the study is that insulin alone corrected the hyperglycemia and partially reversed the pain response in diabetic rats. However, combination with tocotrienol not only attenuated the diabetic condition but also reversed neuropathic pain through modulation of oxidative-nitrosative stress, inflammatory cytokine release and caspase-3 in the diabetic rats and thus it may find clinical application to treat neuropathic pain in the diabetic patients.
To date, the most effective cure for metastatic melanoma remains the surgical resection of the primary tumor. Recently, tocotrienol-rich-fraction has shown antiproliferative effect on cancer cells. To elucidate this anticancer property in malignant melanoma, this study aimed, first, to identify the most potent isomer for eliminating melanoma cells and second to decipher the molecular pathway responsible for its activity. Results showed that the inhibitory effect of gamma-tocotrienol was most potent, which resulted in induction of apoptosis as evidenced by activation of procaspases and the accumulation of sub-G1 cell population. Examination of the prosurvival genes revealed that the gamma-tocotrienol-induced cell death was associated with suppression of NF-kappaB, EGF-R, and Id family proteins. Meanwhile, gamma-tocotrienol treatment also resulted in induction of JNK signaling pathway, and inhibition of JNK activity by selective inhibitor was able to partially block the effect of gamma-tocotrienol. Interestingly, gamma-tocotrienol treatment led to suppression of mesenchymal markers and the restoration of E-cadherin and gamma-catenin expression, which was associated with suppression of cell invasion capability. Furthermore, synergistic effect was observed when cells were cotreated with gamma-tocotrienol and chemotherapy drugs. Together, our results demonstrated for the first time the anti-invasion and chemonsensitization effect of gamma-tocotrienol against human malignant melanoma cells.
Previous studies have revealed that tocotrienol-rich fractions (TRF) from palm oil inhibit the proliferation and the growth of solid tumors. The anticancer activity of TRF is said to be caused by several mechanisms, one of which is antiangiogenesis. In this study, we looked at the antiangiogenic effects of TRF. In vitro investigations of the antiangiogenic activities of TRF, delta-tocotrienol (deltaT3), and alpha-tocopherol (alphaToc) were carried out in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). TRF and deltaT3 significantly inhibited cell proliferation from 4 microg/ml onward (P < 0.05). Cell migration was inhibited the most by deltaT3 at 12 microg/ml. Anti-angiogenic properties of TRF were carried out further in vivo using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and BALB/c mice model. TRF at 200 microg/ml reduced the vascular network on CAM. TRF treatment of 1 mg/mouse significantly reduced 4T1 tumor volume in BALB/c mice. TRF significantly reduced serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, this study showed that palm tocotrienols exhibit anti-angiogenic properties that may assist in tumor regression.
It was recently shown that 1-year chronic exposure of rats to tocotrienol (TT) induced highly proliferative liver lesions, nodular hepatocellular hyperplasia (NHH), and independently increased the number of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive hepatocytes. Focusing attention on the pathological intrinsic property of NHH, a 104-week carcinogenicity study was performed in male and female Wistar Hannover rats given TT at concentrations of 0, 0.4 or 2% in the diet. The high-dose level was adjusted to 1% in both sexes from week 51 because the survival rate of the high-dose males dropped to 42% by week 50. At necropsy, multiple cyst-like nodules were observed, as in the chronic study, but were further enlarged in size, which consequently formed a protuberant surface with a partly pedunculated shape in the liver at the high dose in both sexes. Unlike the chronic study, NHH was not always accompanied by spongiosis, and instead angiectasis was prominent in some nodules. However, several findings in the affected hepatocytes such as minimal atypia, no GST-P immunoreactivity and heterogeneous proliferation, implied that NHH did not harbor neoplastic characteristics from increased exposure despite sustained high cell proliferation. On the other hand, in the high-dose females, the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas was significantly higher than in the control. There was no TT treatment-related tumor induction in any other organs besides the liver. Thus, the overall data clearly suggested that NHH is successively enlarged by further long-term exposure to TT, but does not become neoplastic. In contrast, TT induces low levels of hepatocellular adenomas in female rats.
The present study aimed to examine the effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in forced swimming rats. Rats fed on isocaloric diet were orally given 25 (TRF-25) and 50 (TRF-50) mg/kg of TRF, or 25 mg/kg D-alpha-tocopherol (T-25) whilst the control group received only the vehicle for 28 days, followed by being forced to undergo swimming endurance tests, with measurements taken of various biochemical parameters, including blood glucose, lactate and urea nitrogen, glycogen, total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and protein carbonyl. Results showed that the TRF-treated animals (268.0 +/- 24.1 min for TRF-25 and 332.5 +/- 24.3 min for TRF-50) swam significantly longer than the control (135.5 +/- 32.9 min) and T-25-treated (154.1 +/- 36.4 min) animals, whereas there was no difference in the performance between the T-25 and control groups. The TRF-treated rats also showed significantly higher concentrations of liver glycogen, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as of muscle glycogen and SOD than the control and the T-25-treated animals, but lower levels in blood lactate, plasma and liver TBARS, and liver and muscle protein carbonyl. Taken together, these results suggest that TRF is able to improve the physiological condition and reduce the exercise-induced oxidative stress in forced swimming rats.
Advances in understanding the neurodegenerative pathologies are creating new opportunities for the development of neuroprotective therapies, such as antioxidant food factors, lifestyle modification, and drugs. However, the biomarker by which to determine the effect of the agent on neurodegeneration is limited. We here address hexanoyl dopamine (HED), one of novel dopamine adducts derived from brain polyunsaturated acid, referring to its in vitro formation, potent toxicity to SH-SY5Y cells, and application to assess the neuroprotective effect of antioxidative food factors. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter and its deficiency is a characterized feature in Parkinson’s disease (PD), thereby HED represents a new addition to understanding of dopamine biology and pathophysiology of PD and a novel biomarker for the assessment of neuroprotective therapies. We have established an analytical system using for the detection of HED and its toxicity to the neuroblstoma cell line, SH-SY5Y cells. Here, we discuss the characteristics of the system and its applications to investigate the neuroprotective effect of several antioxidants that originate from food.
Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a well-established nephrotoxic agent. This study was designed to investigate the modulatory effect of the subacute administration of tocotrienol-rich fraction (T3), a product from palm oil, and alpha-tocopherol (T) on Fe-NTA-induced renal injury and oxidative stress. Fe-NTA administration markedly increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine level, which was coupled with a marked lipid peroxidation, reduced activity of glutathione levels, and morphological alterations in rat kidney. Pretreatment with T3 (50 mg/kg/day) and T (50 mg/kg/day) for 7 days before Fe-NTA administration significantly reduced the serum creatinine and BUN levels, reduced lipid peroxidation in a significant manner, and restored levels of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase. T3 pretreatment also attenuated the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, as compared to pretreatment with T, and restored normal renal morphology. These findings suggest a strong correlation between iron-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction and point toward the protective effects of T3 in Fe-NTA-induced renal injury.
The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular disease has created a growing interest in dietary red palm oil research. Also, the link between nutrition and health, oxidative stress and the severity or progression of disease has stimulated further interest in the potential role of red palm oil (a natural antioxidant product) to improve oxidative status by reducing oxidative stress in patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer and other chronic diseases. In spite of its level of saturated fatty acid content (50%), red palm oil has not been found to promote atherosclerosis and/or arterial thrombosis. This is probably due to the ratio of its saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid content and its high concentration of antioxidants such as beta-carotene, tocotrienols, tocopherols and vitamin E. It has also been reported that the consumption of red palm oil reduces the level of endogenous cholesterol, and this seems to be due to the presence of the tocotrienols and the peculiar isomeric position of its fatty acids. The benefits of red palm oil to health include a reduction in the risk of arterial thrombosis and/or atherosclerosis, inhibition of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, platelet aggregation, a reduction in oxidative stress and a reduction in blood pressure. It has also been shown that dietary red palm oil, taken in moderation in animals and humans, promotes the efficient utilisation of nutrients, activates hepatic drug metabolising enzymes, facilitates the haemoglobinisation of red blood cells and improves immune function. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the nutritional, physiological and biochemical roles of red palm oil in improving wellbeing and quality of life.