Radioprotective efficacy of delta-tocotrienol, a vitamin E isoform, is mediated through granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

Singh VK, Wise SY, Scott JR, Romaine PL, Newman VL, Fatanmi OO.

AIMS:

The objectives of this study were to determine the cytokine induction by delta tocotrienol (DT3, a promising radiation countermeasure) and to investigate the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in its radioprotective efficacy against ionizing radiation in mice.

MAIN METHODS:

Multiplex Luminex was used to analyze cytokines induced by DT3 and other tocols (gamma-tocotrienol and tocopherol succinate) CD2F1 mice. Mice were injected with an optimal dose of DT3 and a G-CSF antibody, and their 30-day survival against cobalt-60 gamma-irradiation was monitored. The neutralization of G-CSF by the administration of a G-CSF-specific antibody in DT3-injected mice was investigated by multiplex Luminex.

KEY FINDINGS:

Our data demonstrate that DT3 induced high levels of various cytokines comparable to other tocols being developed as radiation countermeasures. DT3 significantly protected mice against ionizing radiation, and the administration of a G-CSF neutralizing antibody to DT3-treated animals resulted in the complete abrogation of DT3’s radioprotective efficacy and neutralization of G-CSF in peripheral blood.

SIGNIFICANCE:

Our study findings suggest that G-CSF induced by DT3 mediates its radioprotective efficacy against ionizing radiation in mice.

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Vitamin E-gene interactions in aging and inflammatory age-related diseases: Implications for treatment. A systematic review.

Mocchegiani E, Costarelli L, Giacconi R, Malavolta M, Basso A, Piacenza F, Ostan R, Cevenini E, Gonos ES, Franceschi C, Monti D.

Aging is a complex biological phenomenon in which the deficiency of the nutritional state combined with the presence of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to the development of many age-related diseases. Under this profile, the free radicals produced by the oxidative stress lead to a damage of DNA, lipids and proteins with subsequent altered cellular homeostasis and integrity. In young-adult age, the cell has a complex efficient system to maintain a proper balance between the levels of free radicals and antioxidants ensuring the integrity of cellular components. In contrast, in old age this balance is poorly efficient compromising cellular homeostasis. Supplementation with Vitamin E can restore the balance and protect against the deteriorating effects of oxidative stress, progression of degenerative diseases, and aging. Experiments in cell cultures and in animals have clearly shown that Vitamin E has a pivotal role as antioxidant agent against the lipid peroxidation on cell membranes preserving the tissue cells from the oxidative damage. Such a role has been well documented in immune, endothelial, and brain cells from old animals describing how the Vitamin E works both at cytoplasmatic and nuclear levels with an influence on many genes related to the inflammatory/immune response. All these findings have supported a lot of clinical trials in old humans and in inflammatory age-related diseases with however contradictory and inconsistent results and even indicating a dangerous role of Vitamin E able to affect mortality. Various factors can contribute to all the discrepancies. Among them, the doses and the various isoforms of Vitamin E family (α,β,γ,δ tocopherols and the corresponding tocotrienols) used in different trials. However, the more plausible gap is the poor consideration of the Vitamin E-gene interactions that may open new roadmaps for a correct and personalized Vitamin E supplementation in aging and age-related diseases with satisfactory results in order to reach healthy aging and longevity. In this review, this peculiar nutrigenomic and/or nutrigenetic aspect is reported and discussed at the light of specific polymorphisms affecting the Vitamin E bioactivity.

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