Atheroprotective effects of pure tocotrienol supplementation in the treatment of rabbits with experimentally induced early and established atherosclerosis.

Rahman TA, Hassim NF, Zulkafli N, Muid S, Kornain NK, Nawawi H.

Food Nutr Res. 2016 Oct 28;60:31525. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v60.31525.

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary artery disease -related deaths worldwide. The atheroprotective properties of pure tocotrienols (T3) in the absence of alpha-tocopherol (α-TCP) in vitamin E has not been extensively examined. This study aims to determine the atheroprotective properties of T3 in early and established atherosclerosis rabbits. The findings suggest the possible atheroprotective role T3 plays as an adjunct supplementation to standard treatment in the prevention of CAD.

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Tocotrienol Affects Oxidative Stress, Cholesterol Homeostasis and the Amyloidogenic Pathway in Neuroblastoma Cells: Consequences for Alzheimer’s Disease.

Grimm MO, Regner L, Mett J, Stahlmann CP, Schorr P, Nelke C, Streidenberger O, Stoetzel H, Winkler J, Zaidan SR, Thiel A, Endres K, Grimm HS, Volmer DA, Hartmann T.

Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Oct 29;17(11). pii: E1809.

Abstract

One of the characteristics of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is an increased amyloid load and an enhanced level of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Vitamin E has known beneficial neuroprotective effects, and previously, some studies suggested that vitamin E is associated with a reduced risk of AD due to its antioxidative properties. However, epidemiological studies and nutritional approaches of vitamin E treatment are controversial. Here, we investigate the effect of α-tocotrienol, which belongs to the group of vitamin E, on AD-relevant processes in neuronal cell lines. In line with the literature, α-tocotrienol reduced the ROS level in SH-SY5Y cells. In the presence of tocotrienols, cholesterol and cholesterol esters, which have been shown to be risk factors in AD, were decreased. Besides the unambiguous positive effects of tocotrienol, amyloid-β (Aβ) levels were increased accompanied by an increase in the activity of enzymes responsible for Aβ production. Proteins and gene expression of the secretases and their components remained unchanged, whereas tocotrienol accelerates enzyme activity in cell-free assays. Besides enhanced Aβ production, tocotrienolsinhibited Aβ degradation in neuro 2a (N2a)-cells. Our results might help to understand the controversial findings of vitamin E studies and demonstrate that besides the known positive neuroprotective properties, tocotrienols also have negative characteristics with respect to AD.

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Biological Properties of Tocotrienols: Evidence in Human Studies.

Meganathan P, Fu JY.

Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Oct 26;17(11). pii: E1682. Review.

Abstract

Vitamin E has been recognized as an essential vitamin since their discovery in 1922. Although the functions of tocopherols are well established, tocotrienols have been the unsung heroes of vitamin E. Due to their structural differences, tocotrienols were reported to exert distinctive properties compared to tocopherols. While most vegetable oils contain higher amount of tocopherols, tocotrienolswere found abundantly in palm oil. Nature has made palm vitamin E to contain up to 70% of total tocotrienols, among which alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols are the major constituents. Recent advancements have shown their biological properties in conferring protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress and immune regulation. Preclinical results of these physiological functions were translated into clinical trials gaining global attention. This review will discuss in detail the evidence in human studies to date in terms of efficacy, population, disease state and bioavailability. The review will serve as a platform to pave the future direction for tocotrienols in clinical settings.

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The Impact of Vitamin E and Other Fat-Soluble Vitamins on Alzheimer´s Disease.

Grimm MO, Mett J, Hartmann T.

Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Oct 26;17(11). pii: E1785. Review.

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population, currently affecting 46 million people worldwide. Histopathologically, the disease is characterized by the occurrence of extracellular amyloid plaques composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles containing the microtubule-associated protein tau. Aβ peptides are derived from the sequential processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by enzymes called secretases, which are strongly influenced by the lipid environment. Several vitamins have been reported to be reduced in the plasma/serum of AD-affected individuals indicating they have an impact on AD pathogenesis. In this review we focus on vitamin E and the other lipophilic vitamins A, D, and K, and summarize the current knowledge about their status in AD patients, their impact on cognitive functions and AD risk, as well as their influence on the molecular mechanisms of AD. The vitamins might affect the generation and clearance of Aβ both by direct effects and indirectly by altering the cellular lipid homeostasis. Additionally, vitamins A, D, E, and K are reported to influence further mechanisms discussed to be involved in AD pathogenesis, e.g., Aβ-aggregation, Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes, as summarized in this article.]

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Tocotrienol Nanoemulsion Platform of Curcumin Elicit Elevated Apoptosis and Augmentation of Anticancer Efficacy against Breast and Ovarian Carcinomas.

Steuber N, Vo K, Wadhwa R, Birch J, Iacoban P, Chavez P, Elbayoumi TA.

Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Oct 26;17(11). pii: E1792.

Abstract

Vitamin E (VE) tocotrienols (T3), recognized for their cancer-specific anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities, have been previously fabricated into bio-active nanoemulsion (NE) formulations. Here, our viscosity-adapted δ-T3 NE platform was developed to additionally incorporate curcumin (CUR), which is known for its potent suppression of signaling pathways involved in malignant cell growth, survival and metastasis. Thanks to efficient 70:30 wt % surfactant mix of Lutrol F-127:VE-TPGS, in conjunction with optimal CUR loading, a prototype CUR in δ-T3 NE was successfully prepared. Model CUR/δ-T3 NE demonstrated excellent nano-scale aspects (mean particle size = 261 nm, PDI = 0.27, and ζ-potential = -35 mV), pharmaceutical stability, and controlled release properties. Suitability for systemic administration was also verified via standardized in vitro biocompatibility and hemocompatibility assays. In two human cancer cells (MCF-7 and OVCAR-8), our CUR/δ-T3 NE prominently suppressed constitutive NF-κB activation, and significantly induced apoptosis. Finally, the combined CUR/δ-T3 NE produced superior cytotoxicity profiles, in concentration- and time-dependent manners (p ≤ 0.05), at least three to four folds lower IC50 than in closest CUR control. The strong synergism, estimated in both cultured carcinomas, revealed the augmented therapeutic efficacy of our CUR/δ-T3 NE combined platform, supporting its strong potential towards pharmaceutical development for cancer therapy.

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Colorectal Adenomas in Participants of the SELECT Randomized Trial of Selenium and Vitamin E for Prostate Cancer Prevention.

Lance P, Alberts DS, Thompson PA, Fales L, Wang F, San Jose J, Jacobs ET, Goodman PJ, Darke AK, Yee M, Minasian L, Thompson IM, Roe DJ.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016 Oct 24. pii: canprevres.0104.2016. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Selenium and vitamin E micronutrients have been advocated for the prevention of colorectal cancer. Colorectal adenoma occurrence was used as a surrogate for colorectal cancer in an ancillary study to the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) for prostate cancer prevention. The primary objective was to measure the effect of selenium (as selenomethionine) on colorectal adenomas occurrence, with the effect of vitamin E (as alpha tocopherol) supplementation on colorectal adenoma occurrence considered as a secondary objective. Participants who underwent lower endoscopy while in SELECT were identified from a subgroup of the 35,533 men randomized in the trial. Adenoma occurrence was ascertained from the endoscopy and pathology reports for these procedures. Relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of adenoma occurrence were generated comparing those randomized to selenium versus placebo and to vitamin E versus placebo based on the full factorial design. Evaluable endoscopy information was obtained for 6,546 participants, of whom 2,286 had 1+ adenomas. Apart from 21 flexible sigmoidoscopies, all the procedures yielding adenomas were colonoscopies. Adenomas occurred in 34.2% and 35.7%, respectively, of participants whose intervention included or did not include selenium. Compared with placebo, the RR for adenoma occurrence in participants randomized to selenium was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.90-1.02; P = 0.194). Vitamin E did not affect adenoma occurrence compared to placebo (RR = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.96-1.10; P = 0.38). Neither selenium nor vitamin E supplementation can be recommended for colorectal adenoma prevention.

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Association between maternal vitamin E status and alpha-tocopherol levels in the newborn and colostrum.

da Silva Ribeiro KD, Lima MS, Medeiros JF, de Sousa Rebouças A, Dantas RC, Bezerra DS, Osório MM, Dimenstein R.

Matern Child Nutr. 2016 Oct;12(4):801-7. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12232.

Abstract

Vitamin E is important because of its antioxidant activity in situations of oxidative stress, especially postnatally. Hence, the objective was to verify whether maternal alpha-tocopherol level is associated with the alpha-tocopherol levels of the newborn and colostrum. This is a cross-sectional study of 58 women and their term newborns from a public hospital. Blood and colostrum were collected to measure alpha-tocopherol levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mothers with serum alpha-tocopherol levels <16.2 mmol L(-1) and newborns <11.6 mmol L(-1) were indicative of deficiency or low levels. Mothers were divided into two groups: <16.2 mmol L(-1) and those with levels ≥16.2 mmol L(-1) . The mean (95% confidence interval) serum alpha-tocopherol levels of mothers, umbilical cords and colostrum were 28 (24-32), 6 (5-8) and 39 mmol L(-1) (32-45), respectively (P < 0.001); 19% of the women and 90% of the newborns had low alpha-tocopherol levels. Maternal alpha-tocopherol level was associated with that of the umbilical cord. Newborns from mothers at risk of deficiency had low alpha-tocopherol levels (P < 0.001). Colostrum levels of vitamin E were not influenced by maternal serum. Maternal deficiency influenced the vitamin E level of the umbilical cord but does not in the colostrum, evidencing distinct transfer mechanisms via the mammary gland.

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Protective Effects of Selenium, Vitamin E, and Purple Carrot Anthocyanins on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Blood, Liver, Heart and Kidney Rats.

Li X, Zhang Y, Yuan Y, Sun Y, Qin Y, Deng Z, Li H.

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Oct;173(2):433-42. doi: 10.1007/s12011-016-0681-8.

Abstract

The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se), vitamin E (Vit E) and anthocyanins from purple carrots and their combination against the oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in rats. A total of 80 male rats were equally divided into 11 groups, one of which acted as control (I) just receiving intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline. The remaining ten groups (II-XI) were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day for 42 consecutive days. Rats in groups III-XI were treated with antioxidants via gavage per day as follows: group III: Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), IV: Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), V: Se-enriched yeast (SeY), VI: Vit E as α-tocopherol acetate, VII: anthocyanin from purple carrots (APC), VIII: APC + Vit E, IX: SeMSC + APC+ Vit E, X: Na2SeO3 + APC + Vit E, XI: SeY + Ant + Vit E. The results showed that the rats treated with antioxidants (III-XI) showed significant decreases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (PCO) compared with the D-galactose-treated group (II) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. Moreover, there were significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood of antioxidant-treated animals (III-XI) than those in control group (I). In addition, the combined treatments of two or three antioxidants showed greater antioxidant activities than those of individual treatments, suggesting the synergistic antioxidant effects of Se, Vit E, and APC. In conclusion, all the antioxidants exhibited protective effects against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in rats, and these antioxidants showed a synergistic effect.

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Maternal supplementation with a megadose of vitamin A reduces colostrum level of α-tocopherol: a randomised controlled trial.

Grilo EC, Medeiros WF, Silva AG, Gurgel CS, Ramalho HM, Dimenstein R.

J Hum Nutr Diet. 2016 Oct;29(5):652-61. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12381.

Abstract

Maternal supplementation with vitamin A is one of the strategies for controlling its deficiency in the mother-child dyad, although studies with animals showed that supplementation with high doses of vitamin A reduces the levels of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) in the mother’s serum and milk. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of maternal supplementation with vitamin A on the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in human milk. From the results obtained, we concluded that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A increased the colostrum level of this nutrient but reduced the bioavailability of α-tocopherol, which may harm the newborn’s health because newborns have limited vitamin E reserves.

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Interaction of vitamin E isoforms on asthma and allergic airway disease.

Cook-Mills J, Gebretsadik T, Abdala-Valencia H, Green J, Larkin EK, Dupont WD, Shu XO, Gross M, Bai C, Gao YT, Hartman TJ, Rosas-Salazar C, Hartert T.

Thorax. 2016 Oct;71(10):954-6. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-208494.

Abstract

Prospective epidemiological studies, observational cross-sectional studies and some randomised prevention trials have demonstrated inconsistent findings of the impact of vitamin E on asthma risk. The goals of this study were to explore whether this differing association of vitamin E on asthma risk is due to an interaction of vitamin E isoforms. To address this question, in a population-based asthma incidence study we assessed the interaction between the plasma concentrations of vitamin E isoforms α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol on asthma risk. Second, to understand the mechanisms of any interaction of these isoforms, we conducted experimental supplementation of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol isoforms in mice on the outcome of allergic airway inflammation. We found that in the highest γ-tocopherol tertile, low levels of α-tocopherol were associated with increased asthma risk, while highest tertile α-tocopherol levels trended to be protective. Similarly, in a mouse model of asthma, diet supplementation with α-tocopherol decreased lung inflammation in response to house dust mite (HDM) challenge. In contrast, diet supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased lung inflammation in response to HDM. These human and animal studies provide evidence for the competing effects of the vitamin Eisoforms, in physiological concentrations, on asthma and allergic airway disease.

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