Nanoemulsion enhances α-tocopherol succinate bioavailability in rats.

Gao Y, Qi X, Zheng Y, Ji H, Wu L, Zheng N, Tang J.

Int J Pharm. 2016 Dec 30;515(1-2):506-514. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.10.026. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Abstract

The vitamin E analogue, α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS), has a broad anti-tumor effect. α-TOS can induce cancer cells apoptosis and suppress tumor growth by targeting mitochondria. Low bioavailability of α-TOS is the major problem encountered with formulation development. In our study, α-TOS nanoemulsion (α-TOS-NE) was demonstrated as a new drug delivery system of α-TOS to increase the bioavailability. MTT-based cytotoxicity assay and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔY) were performed on human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and human oral epithelial cancer cell lines KB to evaluate in vitro anticancer efficacy of α-TOS-NE. In comparison with free α-TOS, α-TOS-NE exhibited a stronger cytotoxicity and decreased ΔΨ. Pharmacokinetic profiles of I.V. α-TOS-NE group, I.P. α-TOS-NE group, and I.P. free α-TOS group (7% DMSO/93% PEG) were drawn. First of all, nanoemultion (NE) enables the I.V. injection of α-TOS, make it possible to be an I.V. preparation. Second, compare to the I.P. free α-TOS group, I.P. α-TOS-NE group had a higher bioavailability. Thus, NE improved the strong anti-cancer efficacy of α-TOS while increasing its in vivo bioavailability in rats. In conclusion, our laboratory-made NE was a safe drug delivery system for clinical trials and could be a promising formulation for α-TOS by I.V administration.

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Development of Orally Administered γ-Tocotrienol (GT3) Nanoemulsion for Radioprotection.

Ledet GA, Biswas S, Kumar VP, Graves RA, Mitchner DM, Parker TM, Bostanian LA, Ghosh SP, Mandal TK.

Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Dec 24;18(1). pii: E28. doi: 10.3390/ijms18010028.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to formulate γ-tocotrienol (GT3) in a nanoemulsion formulation as a prophylactic orally administered radioprotective agent; and (2) to optimize the storage conditions to preserve the structural integrity of both the formulation and the compound. γ-tocotrienol was incorporated into a nanoemulsion and lyophilized with lactose. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS) was used to monitor the chemical stability of GT3 over time, the particle size and ζ potential, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the physical stability of the nanoemulsion. Radioprotective and toxicity studies were performed in mice. The liquid formulation exhibited GT3 degradation at all storage temperatures. Lyophilization, in the presence of lactose, significantly reduced GT3 degradation. Both the liquid and lyophilized nanoemulsions had stable particle size and ζ potential when stored at 4 °C. Toxicity studies of the nanoemulsion resulted in no observable toxicity in mice at an oral dose of 600 mg/kg GT3. The nano-formulated GT3 (300 mg/kg) demonstrated enhanced survival efficacy compared to GT3 alone (200 and 400 mg/kg) in CD2F1 mice exposed to total body gamma radiation. The optimal long-term storage of formulated GT3 is as a powder at -20 °C to preserve drug and formulation integrity. Formulation of GT3 as a nanoemulsion for oral delivery as a prophylactic radioprotectant shows promise and warrants further investigation.

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Myricetin, rosmarinic and carnosic acids as superior natural antioxidant alternatives to α-tocopherol for the preservation of omega-3 oils.

Guitard R, Paul JF, Nardello-Rataj V, Aubry JM.

Food Chem. 2016 Dec 15;213:284-95. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.06.038. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Abstract

22 natural polyphenols are compared to 7 synthetic antioxidants including BHT, BHA, TBHQ and PG with regard to their ability to protect omega-3 oils from autoxidation. The antioxidant efficiency of phenols is assessed using the DPPH test and the measurement of oxygen consumption during the autoxidation of oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Also, the bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) of the Ar-OH bonds are calculated and excellent correlations between thermodynamic, kinetic and oxidation data are obtained. It is shown that kinetic rates of hydrogen transfer, number of radicals scavenged per antioxidant molecule, BDE and formation of antioxidant dimers from the primary radicals play an important role regarding the antioxidant activity of phenols. Based on this, it is finally shown that myricetin, rosmarinic and carnosic acids are more efficient than α-tocopherol and synthetic antioxidants for the preservation of omega-3 oils.

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Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts.

Melo PS, Arrivetti Lde O, Alencar SM, Skibsted LH.

Food Chem. 2016 Dec 15;213:440-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.06.101. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Abstract

Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, imparted high antioxidant activity especially when combined with α-tocopherol and are suggested for protection of food oil/water emulsions.

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The relationship between functional ovarian cysts and vitamin A, vitamin E, and folate intake.

Tafazoli M, Fazeli E, Nematy M, Bahri N, Dadgar S.

J Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Dec 7:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

This study aimed to clarify the relationship between functional ovarian cysts and vitamin A, vitamin E, and folate intake. This case-control study evaluated 265 women of reproductive age who presented at gynaecology clinics of three hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. While women in the ovarian cyst group [n = 132] had functional ovarian cysts, control group [n = 133] consisted of women without functional ovarian cysts. The participants’ vitamin A, vitamin E, and folate intake was assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Results showed that folate intake was significantly higher in the ovarian cyst group [p = .040]. No significant differences in vitamin A and vitamin E intake were observed between the two groups [p = .950 and .230, respectively]. It is concluded that women with functional ovarian cysts had significantly higher folate intake. Vitamin A and vitamin E intake had no significant effects on the incidence of these cysts.

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Moderate intake of docosahexaenoic acid raises plasma and platelet vitamin E levels in cystic fibrosis patients.

Véricel E, Mazur S, Colas R, Delaup V, Calzada C, Reix P, Durieu I, Lagarde M, Bellon G.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2016 Dec;115:41-47. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2016.10.008. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Abstract

Patients with cystic fibrosis have increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant systems. Moderate intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may favor the lowering of oxidative stress. In this randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, DHA or placebo capsules, were given daily to 10 patients, 5mg/kg for 2 weeks then 10mg/kg DHA for the next 2 weeks (or placebo). After 9 weeks of wash-out, patients took placebo or DHA capsules. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and vitamin E were measured at baseline, and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment in each phase. The proportions of DHA increased both in plasma and platelet lipids after DHA supplementations. The lipid peroxidation markers did not significantly decrease, in spite of a trend, after the first and/or the second dose of DHA but plasma and platelet vitamin E amounts increased significantly after DHA supplementation. Our findings reinforce the antioxidant potential of moderate DHA intake in subjects displaying increased oxidative stress.

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The influence of vitamins E and C and exercise on brain aging.

Thomas Mock J, Chaudhari K, Sidhu A, Sumien N.

Exp Gerontol. 2016 Dec 8. pii: S0531-5565(16)30578-2. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2016.12.008. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Age-related declines in motor and cognitive function have been associated with increases in oxidative stress. Accordingly, interventions capable of reducing the oxidative burden would be capable of preventing or reducing functional declines occurring during aging. Popular interventions such as antioxidant intake and moderate exercise are often recommended to attain healthy aging and have the capacity to alter redox burden. This review is intended to summarize the outcomes of antioxidant supplementation (more specifically of vitamins C and E) and exercise training on motor and cognitive declines during aging, and on measures of oxidative stress. Additionally, we will address whether co-implementation of these two types of interventions can potentially further their individual benefits. Together, these studies highlight the importance of using translationally-relevant parameters for interventions and to study their combined outcomes on healthy brain aging.

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Circulating interleukin-6 is not altered while γ-tocopherol is increased in subjects scheduled for knee surgery with low vitamin D.

Barker T, Henriksen VT, Rogers VE, Momberger NG, Rasmussen GL, Trawick RH.

Cytokine. 2016 Dec;88:108-114. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2016.08.025. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify if circulating interleukin (IL)-6 and γ-tocopherol (γT) fluctuate with vitamin D status in subjects with an underlying knee joint injury or disease. We hypothesized that low vitamin D associates with an increase in plasma γT while serum IL-6 remains unchanged in subjects with an underlying knee joint trauma or disease. Fifty-four subjects scheduled to undergo primary, unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery (ACL; n=27) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA; n=27) were studied. Circulating γT, α-tocopherol (αT), lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides), IL-6, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured in fasting blood samples obtained prior to surgery. Subjects were classified as vitamin D deficient, insufficient, or sufficient if they had a serum 25(OH)D concentration <50, 50-75, or >75nM, respectively. The majority (57%) of the subjects possessed a serum 25(OH)D less than 50nM. Circulating cholesterol, triglycerides, and IL-6 were not significantly (all p>0.05) different between vitamin D status groups. However, lipid corrected αT was significantly (p<0.05) decreased and both lipid- and non-lipid-corrected plasma γT concentrations were significantly (both p<0.05) increased with low serum 25(OH)D (i.e., <50nM). A significant (p<0.05) multi-variate analysis revealed that an increase in plasma γT per lipids was significantly (p<0.05) predicted by a decrease in serum 25(OH)D but not by a decrease in plasma αT per lipids. We conclude that low vitamin D associates with an increase in plasma γT but not IL-6 in subjects with an underlying joint injury or disease.

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Impact of vitamin E-blended UHMWPE wear particles on the osseous microenvironment in polyethylene particle-induced osteolysis.

Neuerburg C, Loer T, Mittlmeier L, Polan C, Farkas Z, Holdt LM, Utzschneider S, Schwiesau J, Grupp TM, Böcker W, Aszodi A, Wedemeyer C, Kammerlander C.

Int J Mol Med. 2016 Dec;38(6):1652-1660. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2016.2780. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Abstract

Aseptic loosening mediated by wear particle-induced osteolysis (PIO) remains the major cause of implant loosening in endoprosthetic surgery. The development of new vitamin E (α-tocopherol)-blended ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (VE-UHMWPE) with increased oxidation resistance and improved mechanical properties has raised hopes. Furthermore, regenerative approaches may be opened, as vitamin E supplementation has shown neuroprotective characteristics mediated via calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is known to affect bone remodeling in PIO. Therefore, the present study aimed to further clarify the impact of VE-UHMWPE wear particles on the osseous microenvironment and to identify the potential modulatory pathways involved. Using an established murine calvaria model, mice were subjected to sham operation (SHAM group), or treated with UHMWPE or VE-UHMWPE particles for different experimental durations (7, 14 and 28 days; n=6/group). Morphometric analysis by micro-computed tomography detected significant (p<0.01) and comparable signs of PIO in all particle-treated groups, whereas markers of inflammation [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining] and bone remodeling [Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK-1)/osteoprotegerin (OPG)] were most affected in the early stages following surgery. Taking the present data into account, VE-UHMWPE appears to have a promising biocompatibility and increased ageing resistance. According to the α-CGRP serum levels and immunohistochemistry, the impact of vitamin E on neuropeptidergic signaling and its chance for regenerative approaches requires further investigation.

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Transcriptome profiling of equine vitamin E deficient neuroaxonal dystrophy identifies upregulation of liver X receptor target genes.

Finno CJ, Bordbari MH, Valberg SJ, Lee D, Herron J, Hines K, Monsour T, Scott E, Bannasch DL, Mickelson J, Xu L.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2016 Dec;101:261-271. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.10.009. Epub 2016 Oct 15.

Abstract

Specific spontaneous heritable neurodegenerative diseases have been associated with lower serum and cerebrospinal fluid α-tocopherol (α-TOH) concentrations. Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy (eNAD) has similar histologic lesions to human ataxia with vitamin E deficiency caused by mutations in the α-TOH transfer protein gene (TTPA). Mutations in TTPA are not present with eNAD and the molecular basis remains unknown. Given the neuropathologic phenotypic similarity of the conditions, we assessed the molecular basis of eNAD by global transcriptome sequencing of the cervical spinal cord. Differential gene expression analysis identified 157 significantly (FDR<0.05) dysregulated transcripts within the spinal cord of eNAD-affected horses. Statistical enrichment analysis identified significant downregulation of the ionotropic and metabotropic group III glutamate receptor, synaptic vesicle trafficking and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways. Gene co-expression analysis identified one module of upregulated genes significantly associated with the eNAD phenotype that included the liver X receptor (LXR) targets CYP7A1, APOE, PLTP and ABCA1. Validation of CYP7A1 and APOE dysregulation was performed in an independent biologic group and CYP7A1 was found to be additionally upregulated in the medulla oblongata of eNAD horses. Evidence of LXR activation supports a role for modulation of oxysterol-dependent LXR transcription factor activity by tocopherols. We hypothesize that the protective role of α-TOH in eNAD may reside in its ability to prevent oxysterol accumulation and subsequent activation of the LXR in order to decrease lipid peroxidation associated neurodegeneration.

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