Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. The cardinal neuropathological characteristic of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) into extracellular plaques that ultimately disrupt neuronal function and lead to neurodegeneration. One possible therapeutic strategy therefore is to prevent Aβ aggregation. Previous studies have suggested that vitamin E analogs slow AD progression in humans. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), a mixture of vitamin E analogs from palm oil, on amyloid pathology in vitro and in vivo. TRF treatment dose-dependently inhibited the formation of Aβ fibrils and Aβ oligomers in vitro. Moreover, daily TRF supplementation to AβPPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice for 10 months attenuated Aβ immunoreactive depositions and thioflavin-S-positive fibrillar type plaques in the brain, and eventually improved cognitive function in the novel object recognition test compared with control AβPPswe/PS1dE9 mice. The present result indicates that TRF reduced amyloid pathology and improved cognitive functions, and suggests that TRF is a potential therapeutic agent for AD.