Modulatory Role of Selenium and Vitamin E, Natural Antioxidants, against Bisphenol A-Induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Albinos Rats.

Amraoui W, Adjabi N, Bououza F, Boumendjel M, Taibi F, Boumendjel A, Abdennour C, Messarah M

Toxicol Res. 2018 Jul;34(3):231-239. doi: 10.5487/TR.2018.34.3.231. Epub 2018 Jul 15.

Abstract

Bisphenol A, an everywhere chemical, is applied as a plasticizer in polycarbonate plastics, which often used in our everyday products and in epoxy resins as protective coatings and linings for food and beverage cans for decades. Human exposure to BPA may lead to adverse effects by interfering with oestrogen receptors. Our present study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se) and vitamin E(Vit E) on BPA-induced damage in the liver of male rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: the first group received olive oil and served as control. The second group received both (Se + Vit E) (0.5 mg/kg diet; 100 mg/kg of diet). The third one treated orally by (10 mg/kg b.w.) of BPA. The last group received (Se + Vit E) (0.5 mg/kg diet; 100 mg/kg of diet) concomitantly with (10 mg/kg b.w.) BPA. Exposure to BPA for three weeks engendered a hepatic disorder. An increased AST and ALT enzymatic activity was noticed in BPA-treated group as compared to other groups. Furthermore, a change in glucose, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, albumin, and bilirubin level was remarkable. Moreover, exposure to BPA increased malondialdehyde levels while reduced gluthatione content was decreased in the liver homogenate. A decrease in glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferase and catalase activities was observed in the same group. Administration of selenium and vitamin E through the diet in BPA treated rats ameliorated the biochemical parameters cited above. In addition, an improvement in activities of liver enzymes was recorded. The histological findings confirmed the biochemical results. The model of this study that we employed characterized the relationships between BPA-induced hepatotoxicity and its alleviation by natural antioxidants like selenium and vitamin E.

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Hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E against hexachlorobenzene-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats: histological, biochimical and antioxidant status changes

Chalouati H, Ben Sâad MM, Payrastre L

Toxicol Mech Methods. 2018 Jul 31:1-31. doi: 10.1080/15376516.2018.1506847. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

The protective effects of α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) on liver injury induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were investigated in adult male rats of Wistar strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups of eight rats each. Group 1 and 2 have received HCB, dissolved in olive oil, at a dose of 4 mg or 16 mg/kg b.w, respectively. Group 3 and 4 were treated by the same doses of HCB (4 mg and 16 mg/kg b.w) after 1h of pretreatment with α-tocopherol at a dose of 100 mg kg-1 b.w. The other two groups served as controls; which received either olive oil only, a solvent of HCB, or α-tocopherol. A significant increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and GSH activity were observed following HCB administration. The activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly decreased while glutathione peroxidase was significantly increased following HCB administration. Similarly, a significant increase in plasma levels of various marker enzymes [aminotransferase (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] and a decrease of total protein level were observed. Pretreatment with vitamin E of HCB treated rats ameliorated all biochemical parameters to near normal values. Liver histological study confirmed biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of vitamin E.

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Meta-analysis of vitamin C, vitamin E and β-carotene levels in the plasma of Alzheimer’s disease patients

Dong R, Yang Q, Zhang Y, Li J, Zhang L, Zhao H

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2018 Jul;47(4):648-654.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To systematically evaluate the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E and β-carotene in the plasma of Alzheimer’s disease( AD) patients.

METHODS:

In this study, literature of the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E and β-carotene in the plasma of AD patients were collected by retrieving the database of Pub Med, Science Direct, CNKI and Wan Fang( from they were built to July 2017).

RESULTS:

Meta-analysis result showed that, compared with the control group, the level of vitamin E in the plasma of AD patients declined significantly( SMD =-1. 49 μmol/L, 95% CI-2. 08–0. 89 μmol/L, P <0. 001). However, no differences were determined in the levels of the plasma vitamin C and β-carotene between the two groups( vitamin C: SMD =-1. 43 μmol/L, 95% CI-3. 05-0. 19 μmol/L, P = 0. 083; β-carotene: SMD =-0. 61 μmol/L, 95% CI-1. 40-0. 18 μmol/L, P = 0. 131).

CONCLUSION:

Increasing vitamin E level in the plasma through vitamin E riched diet may be useful to prevent AD. However it is not yet believed the benefical role on AD to increase vitamin C and β-carotene.

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Effects of vitamin C and E on toxic action of alcohol on partial hepatectomy-induced liver regeneration in rats

Okamura Y, Omori A, Asada N, Ono A

J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2018 Jul;63(1):50-57. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.17-96. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of vitamins C and E on the toxic action of alcohol in rat liver regeneration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to 70% partial hepatectomy were divided into five groups (Groups 1 to 5). Rats in Groups 2 to 5 were only provided alcohol for drinking. Additionally, vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin C in combination with vitamin E were administered to Groups 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Alcohol inhibits liver regeneration, resulting in an increase in free radicals produced by alcohol metabolism and thus causing cellular damage and altering liver function. During liver regeneration, vitamins C and E significantly ameliorated liver injury from alcohol administration by reducing hepatic lipid peroxidation. Vitamins C and E protect against liver injury and dysfunction, attenuate lipid peroxidation, and thus may be more effective in combination than either vitamin alone against alcohol-mediated toxic effects during liver regeneration.

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Interaperitoneal Administration of Αlpha-Tocopherol Loaded Nanoparticles Improves Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rat Ovaries Torsion and Detorsion Model

Najafpour A, Azizizadeh H

Bull Emerg Trauma. 2018 Jul;6(3):207-216. doi: 10.29252/beat-060304.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate effects of intraperitoneally administration of α-tocopherol loaded nanoparticles (TNP) on ischemia-reperfusion injury in ovaries.

METHODS:

Thirty-five healthy female Wistar rats ~250g were randomized into seven experimental groups (n = 5): Group SHAM: The rats underwent only laparotomy. Group Ischemia: A 3- hour ischemia only. Group I/R: A 3-hour ischemia and a 3-hour reperfusion. Group I/T: A 3-hour ischemia only and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal administration (IP) of α-tocopherol 2.5 hours after induction of ischemia. Group I/R/T: A 3-hour ischemia, a 3-hour reperfusion and 100 mg/kg IP of α-tocopherol 2.5 hours after induction of ischemia. Group I/TNP: A 3-hour ischemia only and 1 mg/kg IP of TNP 2.5 hours after induction of ischemia. Group I/R/TNP: A 3-hour ischemia, a 3-hour reperfusion and 1 mg/kg IP of TNP 2.5 hours after induction of ischemia.

RESULTS:

Animals treated with αTNP showed significantly ameliorated development of ischemia and reperfusion tissue injury compared to those of other groups (p=0.001). The significant higher values of SOD, tGSH, GPO, GSHRd and GST were observed in I/R/NC animals compared to those of other groups (p=0.001). Damage indicators (NOS, MDA, MPO and DNA damage level) were significantly lower in I/R/NC animal compared to those of other groups (p=0.001).

CONCLUSION:

Intraperitoneal administration of TNP could be helpful in minimizing ischemia-reperfusion injury in ovarian tissue exposed to ischemia.

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Short-Term High-Dose Vitamin C and E Supplementation Attenuates Muscle Damage and Inflammatory Responses to Repeated Taekwondo Competitions: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

Chou CC, Sung YC, Davison G, Chen CY, Liao YH

Int J Med Sci. 2018 Jul 30;15(11):1217-1226. doi: 10.7150/ijms.26340. eCollection 2018.

Abstract

Background: Exercise-induced muscle damage during intensive sport events is a very common issue in sport medicine. Therefore, the purpose is to investigate the effects of short-term high-dose vitamin C and E supplementation on muscle damage, hemolysis, and inflammatory responses to simulated competitive Olympic Taekwondo (TKD) matches in elite athletes. Methods: Using a randomized placebo-controlled and double-blind study design, eighteen elite male TKD athletes were weight-matched and randomly assigned into either a vitamin C and E group (Vit C+E; N = 9) or placebo group (PLA; N = 9). Vit C+E or PLA supplements were taken daily (Vit C+E: 2000 mg/d vitamin C; 1400 U/d vitamin E) for 4 days (3 days before and on competition day) before taking part in 4 consecutive TKD matches on a single day. Plasma samples were obtained before each match and 24-hours after the first match for determination of markers of muscle damage, hemolysis, and systemic inflammatory state. Results: Myoglobin was lower in the Vit C+E group, compared to PLA, during the match day (area under curve, AUC -47.0% vs. PLA, p = 0.021). Plasma creatine kinase was lower in the Vit C+E group (AUC -57.5% vs. PLA, p = 0.017) and hemolysis was lower in the Vit C+E group (AUC -40.5% vs. PLA, p = 0.034). Conclusions: We demonstrated that short-term (4-days) vitamin C and E supplementation effectively attenuated exercise-induced tissue damage and inflammatory response during and after successive TKD matches.

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Annatto-extracted tocotrienols improve glucose homeostasis and bone properties in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing the inflammatory response.

Shen CL, Kaur G, Wanders D, Sharma S, Tomison MD, Ramalingam L, Chung E, Moustaid-Moussa N, Mo H, Dufour JM

Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 27;8(1):11377. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-29063-9.

Abstract

Diabetes is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Annatto-extracted tocotrienols (TT) have proven benefits in preserving bone matrix. Here, we evaluated the effects of dietary TT on glucose homeostasis, bone properties, and liver pro-inflammatory mRNA expression in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic (T2DM) mice. 58 male C57BL/6 J mice were divided into 5 groups: low-fat diet (LFD), HFD, HFD + 400 mgTT/kg diet (T400), HFD + 1600 mgTT/kg diet (T1600), and HFD + 200 mg metformin/kg (Met) for 14 weeks. Relative to the HFD group, both TT-supplemented groups (1) improved glucose homeostasis by lowering the area under the curve for both glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests, (2) increased serum procollagen I intact N-terminal propeptide (bone formation) level, trabecular bone volume/total volume, trabecular number, connectivity density, and cortical thickness, (3) decreased collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (bone resorption) levels, trabecular separation, and structure model index, and (4) suppressed liver mRNA levels of inflammation markers including IL-2, IL-23, IFN-γ, MCP-1, TNF-α, ITGAX and F4/80. There were no differences in glucose homeostasis and liver mRNA expression among T400, T1600, and Met. The order of osteo-protective effects was LFD ≥T1600 ≥T400 = Met >HFD. Collectively, these data suggest that TT exerts osteo-protective effects in T2DM mice by regulating glucose homeostasis and suppressing inflammation.

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Vitamin E, Deficiency

Kemnic TR, Coleman M

StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018-. 2018 Jul 24.

Excerpt

Vitamin E is all the following eight compounds alpha, beta, gamma, and delta-tocopherol and alpha, beta, gamma, and delta-tocotrienol. Alpha-tocopherol is the only compound of the eight that are known to meet human dietary needs. All of the vitamin E forms are absorbed in the small intestine, and then the liver metabolizes only alpha-tocopherol. The liver then removes and excretes the remaining vitamin E forms. Vitamin E deficiency is extremely rare in humans as it is unlikely caused by a diet consisting of low vitamin E. Rather, it tends to be caused by irregularities in dietary fat absorption or metabolism. Vitamin E is a lipid-soluble nutrient. Vitamin E may have a role in reducing atherosclerosis and lowering rates of ischemic heart disease. Premature infants have low vitamin E reserves due to vitamin E only able to cross the placenta in small amounts.

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Weight loss program is associated with decrease α-tocopherol status in obese adults

Hamułka J, Górnicka M, Sulich A, Frąckiewicz J

Clin Nutr. 2018 Jul 20. pii: S0261-5614(18)31213-5. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.07.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Studies on changes in plasma α-tocopherol levels during body fat reduction in obese persons are not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess factors associated with α-tocopherol status in obese people and to examine changes in α-tocopherolstatus after a 6-week AntioxObesity weight loss program.

METHODS:

The study was conducted in 60 overweight or obese adults, aged 18-54 years old. Food intake data were collected using the 3-day record method and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements included: height (H), body weight, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC), body composition: fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM), subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF). Lipid profile, α-tocopherol concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in erythrocytes were determined.

RESULTS:

Energy, fat, and carbohydrate intakes decreased significantly in all subjects (P < 0.001). Body weight, WC, body mass index (BMI), waist-to height ratio (WHtR), and FM, VF and SF decreased significantly during the 6 weeks in all subjects. Plasma α-tocopherolsignificantly decreased during the program (P = 0.006). No changes were observed for SOD activity, but GPx activity and TAC decreased significantly (P = 0.001; P = 0,023, respectively). Plasma α-tocopherol concentration after 6 weeks of the AntioxObesity program was strongly associated with baseline plasma α-tocopherol, changes in TC, VF and FM. Low α-tocopherol status (<20 μmol/L) was found in 78% of the women and 68% of the men, after 6 weeks of the AntioxObesity program. Men were characterized by a greater decrease in weight, BMI, WC, FM, VF, SF and TAC compared to women.

CONCLUSIONS:

A 6-week weight loss program lowered α-tocopherol status in overweight and obese people. Low baseline α-tocopherolstatus and adiposity in obese adults negatively affected α-tocopherol status after 6 weeks weight loss program. These results, coupled with excessive weight and low α-tocopherol intake, led to the finding that there was an increased risk of oxidative stress diseases in adults on a reduced diet. Long-term dietary restriction program for obese patients should be monitored to avoid α-tocopherol deficiency, and take into account higher dietary α-tocopherol requirements for obese people.

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11 Amazing Health Benefits of Vitamin E

Vitamin E is said to combat factors that contribute to neurological diseases as well. This is why many physicians and beauticians emphasize that your diet should have an adequate amount of vitamin E.

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