Regulatory role of vitamin E in the immune system and inflammation

Lewis ED, Meydani SN, Wu D

IUBMB Life. 2018 Nov 30. doi: 10.1002/iub.1976. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Vitamin E, a potent lipid-soluble antioxidant, found in higher concentration in immune cells compared to other cells in blood, is one of the most effective nutrients known to modulate immune function. Vitamin E deficiency has been demonstrated to impair normal functions of the immune system in animals and humans, which can be corrected by vitamin E repletion. Although deficiency is rare, vitamin E supplementation above current dietary recommendations has been shown to enhance the function of the immune system and reduce risk of infection, particularly in older individuals. The mechanisms responsible for the effect of vitamin E on the immune system and inflammation have been explored in cell-based, pre-clinical and clinical intervention studies. Vitamin E modulates T cell function through directly impacting T cell membrane integrity, signal transduction, and cell division, and also indirectly by affecting inflammatory mediators generated from other immune cells. Modulation of immune function by vitamin E has clinical relevance as it affects host susceptibility to infectious diseases such as respiratory infections, in addition to allergic diseases such as asthma. Studies examining the role of vitamin E in the immune system have typically focused on α-tocopherol; however, emerging evidence suggests that other forms of vitamin E, including other tocopherols as well as tocotrienols, may also have potent immunomodulatory functions. Future research should continue to identify and confirm the optimal doses for individuals at different life stage, health condition, nutritional status, and genetic heterogeneity. Future research should also characterize the effects of non-α-alpha-tocopherol vitamin E on immune cell function as well as their potential clinical application.

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Increased plasma levels of the lipoperoxyl radical-derived vitamin E metabolite α-tocopheryl quinone are an early indicator of lipotoxicity in fatty liver subjects

Torquato P, Bartolini D, Giusepponi D, Piroddi M, Sebastiani B, Saluti G, Galarini R, Galli F

Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 Nov 30;131:115-125. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.11.036. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Lipid peroxidation is one of the earliest pathogenic events of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this context, an increased oxidation of the lipoperoxyl radical scavenger α-tocopherol (α-TOH) should occur already in the subclinical phases of the disease to compensate for the increase oxidation of the lipid excess of liver and possibly of other tissues. However, this assumption remains unsupported by direct analytical evidence. In this study, GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS procedures have been developed and applied for the first time to measure the vitamin Eoxidation metabolite α-tocopheryl quinone (α-TQ) in plasma of fatty liver (FL) subjects that were compared in a pilot cross-sectional study with healthy controls. The protein adducts of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the free form of polyunsaturated free fatty acids (PUFA) were measured as surrogate indicators of lipid peroxidation. α-TQ formation was also investigated in human liver cells after supplementation with α-TOH and/or fatty acids (to induce steatosis). Compared with controls, FL subjects showed increased (absolute and α-TOH-corrected) levels of plasma α-TQ and 4-HNE, and decreased concentrations of PUFA. α-TQ levels positively correlated with indices of liver damage and metabolic dysfunction, such as alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin and triglycerides, and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol. Fatty acid supplementation in human hepatocytes stimulated the generation of cellular oxidants and α-TOH uptake leading to increased α-TQ formation and secretion in the extracellular medium – both were markedly stimulated by α-TOH supplementation. In conclusion, plasma α-TQ represents an early biomarker of the lipoperoxyl radical-induced oxidation of vitamin E and lipotoxicity of the fatty liver.

Targeting myomiRs by tocotrienol-rich fraction to promote myoblast differentiation

Razak AM, Khor SC, Jaafar F, Karim NA, Makpol S

Genes Nutr. 2018 Nov 29;13:31. doi: 10.1186/s12263-018-0618-2. eCollection 2018.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Several muscle-specific microRNAs (myomiRs) are differentially expressed during cellular senescence. However, the role of dietary compounds on myomiRs remains elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the modulatory role of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on myomiRs and myogenic genes during differentiation of human myoblasts. Young and senescent human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM) were treated with 50 μg/mL TRF for 24 h before and after inducing differentiation.

RESULTS:

The fusion index and myotube surface area were higher (p < 0.05) on days 3 and 5 than that on day 1 of differentiation. Ageing reduced the differentiation rate, as observed by a decrease in both fusion index and myotube surface area in senescent cells (p < 0.05). Treatment with TRF significantly increased differentiation at days 1, 3 and 5 of young and senescent myoblasts. In senescent myoblasts, TRF increased the expression of miR-206 and miR-486 and decreased PTEN and PAX7 expression. However, the expression of IGF1R was upregulated during early differentiation and decreased at late differentiation when treated with TRF. In young myoblasts, TRF promoted differentiation by modulating the expression of miR-206, which resulted in the reduction of PAX7 expression and upregulation of IGF1R.

CONCLUSION:

TRF can potentially promote myoblast differentiation by modulating the expression of myomiRs, which regulate the expression of myogenic genes.

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Stay Young & Slim With These Vitamin E Rich Foods

Want to Slow Aging and reduce weight naturally? Then start eating foods rich in Vitamin E. These foods are not only rich source of antioxidants but also prevent free radical damage to specific fats in the body that are critical for your health. Vitamin E is found only in plant foods, including certain oils, nuts, grains, fruits and wheat germ. It is also available as a supplement.

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Exercise augments the modulatory effects of vitamin E on pre-diabetes-induced aortopathy: a potential role of adiponectin

Dallak MA, Al-Ani B, El Karib AO, Abd Ellatif M, Eid RA, Al-Ani R, Mahmoud HM, Haidara MA

Arch Physiol Biochem. 2018 Nov 22:1-7. doi: 10.1080/13813455.2018.1538250. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We tested the hypothesis that vitamin E may protect against pre-diabetes-induced aortic injury (aortopathy), and exercise can augment the action of vitamin E.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Rats were either fed with a high fat and fructose diet (HFD) (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. The three protective groups were treated with vitamin E (HFD + Vit E), swimming exercises (HFD + Ex), and vitamin E plus swimming exercises (HFD + VitE + Ex), respectively.

RESULTS:

Aortopathy was developed in the model group as demonstrated by substantial tissue ultrastructural alterations, which were partially protected by vitamin E and effectively protected with vitamin E plus swim exercise. Also, swimming exercises significantly (p < .05) increased the modulatory effects of vitamin E on dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, blood pressure, oxidative stress, inflammation, leptin, and adiponectin, except coagulation and thrombosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Swim exercise augments the protective effects of vitamin E in a pre-diabetic animal model.

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Proteomic profiling of senescent human diploid fibroblasts treated with gamma-tocotrienol

Tan JK, Jaafar F, Makpol S

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Nov 29;18(1):314. doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2383-6.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) has been used as a model to study mechanisms of cellular aging. Gamma-tocotrienol (γT3) is one of the members of vitamin E family which has been shown to increase proliferation of senescent HDFs. However, the modulation of protein expressions by γT3 in senescent HDFs remains to be elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in young and senescent HDFs; and in vehicle- and γT3-treated senescent HDFs using label-free quantitative proteomics.

METHODS:

Whole proteins were extracted and digested in-gel with trypsin. Peptides were detected by Orbitrap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Mass spectra were identified and quantitated by MaxQuant software. The data were further filtered and analyzed statistically using Perseus software to identify DEPs. Functional annotations of DEPs were performed using Panther Classification System.

RESULTS:

A total of 1217 proteins were identified in young and senescent cells, while 1218 proteins in vehicle- and γT3-treated senescent cells. 11 DEPs were found in young and senescent cells which included downregulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor beta and upregulation of tubulin beta-2A chain protein expressions in senescent cells. 51 DEPs were identified in vehicle- and γT3-treated senescent cells which included upregulation of 70 kDa heat shock protein, triosephosphate isomerase and malate dehydrogenase protein expressions in γT3-treated senescent cells.

CONCLUSIONS:

PDGF signaling and cytoskeletal structure may be dysregulated in senescent HDFs. The pro-proliferative effect of γT3 on senescent HDFs may be mediated through the stimulation of cellular response to stress and carbohydrate metabolism. The expressions and roles of these proteins in relation to cellular senescence are worth further investigations. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD009933.

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Tocotrienol Rich Fraction Supplementation Modulate Brain Hippocampal Gene Expression in APPswe/PS1dE9 Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

Wan Nasri WN, Makpol S, Mazlan M, Tooyama I, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah WZ, Damanhuri HA

J Alzheimers Dis. 2018 Nov 28. doi: 10.3233/JAD-180496. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and other cognitive abilities. AD is associated with aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) deposited in the hippocampal brain region. Our previous work has shown that tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) supplementation was able to attenuate the blood oxidative status, improve behavior, and reduce fibrillary-type Aβ deposition in the hippocampus of an AD mouse model. In the present study, we investigate the effect of 6 months of TRF supplementation on transcriptome profile in the hippocampus of APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice. TRF supplementation can alleviate AD conditions by modulating several important genes in AD. Moreover, TRF supplementation attenuated the affected biological process and pathways that were upregulated in the AD mouse model. Our findings indicate that TRF supplementation can modulate hippocampal gene expression as well as biological processes that can potentially delay the progression of AD.

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Challenges and Opportunities of Nanotechnology as Delivery Platform for Tocotrienols in Cancer Therapy

Maniam G, Mai CW, Zulkefeli M, Dufès C, Tan DM, Fu JY

Front Pharmacol. 2018 Nov 26;9:1358. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01358. eCollection 2018.

Abstract

Plant-derived phytonutrients have emerged as health enhancers. Tocotrienols from the vitamin E family gained high attention in recent years due to their multi-targeted biological properties, including lipid-lowering, neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Despite well-defined mechanism of action as an anti-cancer agent, their clinical use is hampered by poor pharmacokinetic profile and low oral bioavailability. Delivery systems based on nanotechnology were proven to be advantageous in elevating the delivery of tocotrienolsto tumor sites for enhanced efficacy. To date, preclinical development of nanocarriers for tocotrienols include niosomes, lipid nanoemulsions, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and polymeric nanoparticles. Active targeting was explored via the use of transferrin as targeting ligand in niosomes. In vitro, nanocarriers were shown to enhance the anti-proliferative efficacy and cellular uptake of tocotrienols in cancer cells. In vivo, improved bioavailability of tocotrienols were reported with NLCs while marked tumor regression was observed with transferrin-targeted niosomes. In this review, the advantages and limitations of each nanocarriers were critically analyzed. Furthermore, a number of key challenges were identified including scale-up production, biological barriers, and toxicity profiles. To overcome these challenges, three research opportunities were highlighted based on rapid advancements in the field of nanomedicine. This review aims to provide a wholesome perspective for tocotrienol nanoformulations in cancer therapy directed toward effective clinical translation.

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How to apply vitamin E capsules on to the skin directly

Our body needs various vitamins and tablets for proper functioning of the body. There are individual benefits from each vitamin such as vitamin B whose supplement is becosules benefit overall development. In the same manner, Vitamin E not only promotes a smooth and healthy skin but also gets rid of burns, stretch marks,and scars.

Its daily use can help rejuvenate the skin by giving it a younger and healthier look. It might even be a better treatment than that expensive anti-ageing creams that you buy from departmental stores. However, what most people don’t know is that vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant, and fights those nasty free radicals which can damage your skin and not mention, your body.

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Vitamin E supplementation and caloric restriction promotes regulation of insulin secretion and glycemic homeostasis by different mechanisms in rats

Venturini PR, Thomazini BF, Oliveira CA, Alves AA, Camargo TF, Domingues CEC, Barbosa-Sampaio HCL, do Amaral MEC

Biochem Cell Biol. 2018 Nov 27:1-9. doi: 10.1139/bcb-2018-0066. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Vitamin E and caloric restriction have antioxidant effects in mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of vitamin E supplementation and caloric restriction upon insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in rats. Male Wistar rats were distributed among the following groups: C, control group fed ad libitum; R, food quantity reduction of 40%; CV, control group supplemented with vitamin E [30 mg·kg-1·day-1]; and RV, food-restricted group supplemented with vitamin E. The experiments ran for 21 days. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity was higher in the CV, R, and RV groups. Insulin secretion stimulated with different glucose concentrations was lower in the R and RV groups, compared with C and CV. In the presence of glucose and secretagogues, insulin secretion was higher in the CV group and was lower in the R and RV groups. An increase in insulin receptor occurred in the fat pad and muscle tissue of groups CV, R, and RV. Levels of hepatic insulin receptor and phospho-Akt protein were higher in groups R and RV, compared with C and CV, while muscle phospho-Akt was increased in the CV group. There was a reduction in hepatic RNA levels of the hepatocyte growth factor gene and insulin degrading enzyme in the R group, and increased levels of insulin degrading enzyme in the CV and RV groups. Thus, vitamin E supplementation and caloric restriction modulate insulin secretion by different mechanisms to maintain glucose homeostasis.

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