Tocotrienols Modulate Breast Cancer Secretomes and Affect Cancer-Signaling Pathways in MDA-MB-231 Cells: A Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

Ramdas P, Radhakrishnan AK, Abdu Sani AA, Abdul-Rahman PS

Nutr Cancer. 2019 May 14:1-9. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2019.1607407. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Tocotrienols (T3), a family of vitamin E, are reported to possess potent anti-cancer effects but the molecular mechanisms behind these effects still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate how T3 exert anti-cancer effects on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The MDA-MB-231 cells were chosen for this study as they are triple-negative and highly metastatic cells, which form aggressive tumors in experimental models. The MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with varying concentrations (0-20 µg mL-1) of gamma (γ) or delta (δ) T3 and the secretome profiles of these cells treated with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of γT3 (5.8 µg mL-1) or δT3 (4.0 µg mL-1) were determined using label-free quantitative proteomic strategy. A total of 103, 174 and 141 proteins were identified with ProteinLynx Global Server (PLGS) score of more than 200 and above 25% sequence coverage in the untreated control and T3-treated cell culture supernatant respectively. A total of 18 proteins were dysregulated between untreated control and T3 (δT3 or γT3) treated conditions. The results showed that T3 treatment downregulated the exogenous Cathepsin D and Serpine1 proteins but upregulated Profilin-1 protein, which play a key role in breast cancer in the MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings strongly suggest that T3 may induce differential expression of secreted proteins involved in the cytoskeletal regulation of RHO GTPase signaling pathway.

Read More

The Effect of Alpha-Tocopherol on Morphine Tolerance-induced Expression of c-fos Proto-oncogene from a Biotechnological Perspective

Mehrabi S, Nasirinezhad F, Barati M, Abutaleb N, Barati S, Dereshky BT, Amini N, Milan PB, Jahanmahin A, Sarveazad A, Samadikuchaksaraei A, Mozafari M

Recent Pat Biotechnol. 2019;13(2):137-148. doi: 10.2174/1872208312666181120105333.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The increase of oxidant compounds is the most well-known reasons for the tolerance to the analgesic properties of Morphine. Additionally, the production of proxy-nitrite impairs receptors, proteins and enzymes involved in the signaling pathways of analgesia, apoptosis and necrosis. Also, we revised all patents relating to opioid tolerance control methods.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Alpha-tocopherol as an anti-oxidant agent to reduce Morphine tolerance.

METHOD:

Forty male rats randomly divided into four groups. 10 mg/kg of morphine was injected subcutaneously to create the desired level of tolerance. After modeling, 70 mg/kg Alpha- Tocopherol was injected intraperitoneal. Also, the hot plate recorded pain threshold alterations was used to evaluate the behavioral test. All tissue samples were extracted from the spinal cord, thalamus and frontal cortex for molecular and gene expression evaluations. Also, the effect of Alpha- Tocopherol on the apoptosis and necrosis parameters was analyzed using nissl staining and tunel test.

RESULTS:

The time latency results showed that there were no significant differences in the different days in groups treated with Morphine plus Alpha-Tocopherol. However, our data highlighted that the pain threshold and their time latency in respond to it had substantially increased in comparison with the control group. Furthermore, we found that the Alpha-Tocopherol obviously decreased c-fos gene expression, especially in the spinal cord.

CONCLUSION:

Thus, co-administration of Alpha-Tocopherol with Morphine can decrease the adverse effects of nitrite proxy, which is released due to repeated injections of Morphine.

Read More

Take this vitamin to halt hair loss

In 2000, two Turkish scientists published a study in Cell Biochemistry and Function, showing a link between oxidative stress and hair loss.

By comparing the levels and activities of certain antioxidants – as well as substances indicating oxidative stress – between two groups of participants, one with hair loss and one without, the scientists found that the levels of antioxidants were significantly lower in those participants experiencing hair loss. In additon, the levels of substances showing oxidative stress were significantly higher for these participants.

Read More

Beneficial effects of vitamin E on radioiodine induced gastrointestinal damage: an experimental and pathomorphological study

Yumusak N, Sadic M, Akbulut A, Aydinbelge FN, Koca G, Korkmaz M

Bratisl Lek Listy. 2019;120(4):263-269. doi: 10.4149/BLL_2019_048.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E in the prevention of radioiodine (RAI) induced gastrointestinal damage.

METHOD:

Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Group-1 was untreated control group, Group-2 was orally administered single dose of 111 MBq RAI, and Group-3 was orally administered 111 MBq RAI and 1 mL of oral vitamin EVitamin E was started two days before RAI administration and was continued for five days once daily after RAI. Pathomorphological parameters of gastrointestinal tissues (stomach, small intestines and bowels) were measured using Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining.

RESULTS:

Varying degrees of inflammation, edema, ulcer, mucosal degeneration, necrosis and fibrosis were seen in the stomach, small intestine and bowel tissues of the rats in both study groups and not in the control group. The differences were statistically significant between these groups for all parameters (p < 0.05). The histopathological damage in the vitamin E treated group was significantly less than the damage in the RAI only group (p < 0.05 for all pathomorphological parameters).

CONCLUSION:

The results of this study showed that vitamin E has a radioprotective property with antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effects protecting against gastrointestinal damage caused by radioiodine.

Read More

Protective potential of Vitamin E against methylphenidate-induced male gonadal changes in albino rats.

Iqbal S, Hameed U, Hasan B, Zia-Ul-Islam, Ahmed M, Brohi AH

Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2019 May-Jun;13(3):19-23.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ranks among the top neuropsychiatric disorder of childhood and adolescents. Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most frequently used pharmacologic agent to treat this condition. Its long-term use has been associated with many unwanted and adverse effects on many organs including male gonads, but so far no study has been done to find out a protective agent. This study investigated the protective potential of Vitamin E (Vit E) against the microscopic and morphometric alterations in male gonads induced by MPH, using albino rats.

METHODS:

Adult male albino rats were assigned into three equal groups including one control and two experimental groups. Experimental groups administered with MPH (10 mg/kg) and MPH (10 mg/kg) + Vit E orally (50 mg/kg), daily for 40 days. Testes of the sacrificed animals were removed, processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for examining the microscopic and morphometric alterations and protective potential of Vit E. Data were analyzed using ANOVA.

RESULTS:

Experimental animals treated with MPH showed a significant decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules (296.86 ± 14.70 µm) and height of germinal epithelium (51.73 ± 3.15 µm) with a corresponding gain in the thickness of the interstitium (47.05 ± 4.94 µm). Animals treated with MPH + Vit E did not reveal any significant testicular microscopic changes and seminiferous tubular alterations induced by MPH.

CONCLUSION:

Vit E demonstrated a protective potential against the adverse changes induced by MPH in the male gonads in albino rats.

Read More

How to Effectively Supplement Horses With Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an essential nutrient in the equine diet, meaning horses cannot make it themselves and must consume it through their diets. Horses can easily meet this requirement with adequate access to high-quality pasture. However, vitamin E levels drop rapidly in preserved forages (think hay). And horses with decreased vitamin E levels can be at risk for developing some neuromuscular conditions. As such, owners might need to supplement this vitamin in their horses’ diets, one veterinarian and researcher said.

Read More

Vitamin E status in healthy population in Asia: a review of current literature

Malik A, Eggersdorfer M, Trilok-Kumar G

Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 May 24:1-14. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000590. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Vitamin E is a lipid soluble antioxidant which mainly circulates as α-tocopherol in the human plasma. Its deficiency is associated with ataxia, neuropathy, anaemia and several other health conditions. Although substantial data on vitamin E status has been published worldwide, there is paucity of data on the extent of deficiency from most Asian countries, including India. Part of the problem is lack of validated biomarkers for vitamin E and no consensus on cut offs for defining deficiency and sufficiency. Thus, interpretation of the data on the vitamin E status is difficult. Limited available data from 31 studies on vitamin E status in healthy people from Asia, the most populated continent, has been collated for the purpose of this review. Broadly, the results suggest inadequate vitamin E status in most age groups, with the prevalence of deficiency reaching 67%, 80%, 56% and 72% in infants, children and adolescents, adults, elderly and pregnant women, respectively, based on varying cut offs. The findings are not surprising as both, vitamin E intakes and its status have not received too much attention in the past. Lack of conclusive data accentuates the need for more research on the vitamin E status across all age groups and to define age, gender and physiological state specific cut offs for vitamin E levels.

Read More

Alzheimer’s disease linked with low levels of vitamin E tocotrienols and tocopherols, study says

A study has found that people with Alzheimer’s disease showed significantly lower plasmatic concentration of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols and total vitamin E (full-spectrum vitamin E consisting of all eight isoforms) compared to cognitively healthy subjects. The researchers also measured the leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which has been known to be associated with cognitive decline as well as decline in LTL with aging. The study showed the LTL is shorter in Alzheimer subjects and also that excessive nitrosylation of γ-tocopherol influences the risk of developing Alzheimer’s only in those individuals with preserved telomere length (i.e., biologically younger).

Read More

Has vitamin E any shreds of evidence in cisplatin-induced toxicity

Hakiminia B, Goudarzi A, Moghaddas A

J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2019 May 21:e22349. doi: 10.1002/jbt.22349. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Cisplatin is one of the highly consumed and effective antitumor agents whose clinical application is accompanied by nephrotoxicity adverse reaction. Also, other complications such as ototoxicity and hepatotoxicity are a matter of concern. Today, it is suggested that cisplatin-associated toxicities are mainly induced by free radicals production, which will result in oxidative organ injury. The evidence is growing over the protective effects of antioxidants on cisplatin-induced adverse reactions especially nephrotoxicity. The possible protective effects of vitamin E and its derivative in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are reviewed here at the light of pertinent results from basic and clinical research. Administration of vitamin E alone or in combination with other antioxidant agents could cause amelioration in oxidative stress biomarkers such as decreasing the level of malondialdehyde, reducing serum urea and creatinine, and also enhancing the activities of renal antioxidant enzymes including renal catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase. Although the data from most of the studies are in favors of protective effects of vitamin E against cisplatin-induced toxicity, more clinical trials are needed to clarify the clinical importance of vitamin E administration as an antioxidant during cisplatin therapy in cancer condition.

Read More

A Prospective Study of Serum Vitamin E and 28-Year Risk of Lung Cancer

Huang J, Weinstein SJ, Yu K, Männistö S, Albanes D

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2019 May 11. pii: djz077. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djz077. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Epidemiologic data are inconsistent regarding the vitamin E-lung cancer association, and no study has examined serologic changes in vitamin E status in relation to subsequent risk.

METHODS:

In a cohort of 22,781 male smokers in the ATBC Study, we ascertained 3,184 lung cancer cases during up to 28 years of observation. Cox proportional hazards models examined whether higher serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations at baseline, 3 years, or the interval change were associated with lower lung cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS:

After adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking intensity and duration, serum total cholesterol, and trial intervention group, we found lower lung cancer risk in men with high baseline alpha-tocopherol (5th quintile (Q5) vs Q1, hazard ratio (HR)=0.76, 95%CI =0.66 to 0.87; Ptrend<0.001). A similar reduction in risk was seen for serum alpha-tocopherol at 3 years (Q5 vs Q1, HR = 0.78, 95%CI =0.67 to 0.91; Ptrend=0.004). The inverse risk association appeared stronger for younger men and those having smoked fewer years, but was similar across trial intervention groups. We also found reduced risk among un-supplemented men with a lower serum alpha-tocopherol at baseline who had greater increases in concentrations at 3 years (3rd tertile vs 1st tertile of serum alpha-tocopherol change, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.91, P=0.005).

CONCLUSION:

Higher vitamin E status, as measured by serum alpha-tocopherol concentration, as well as repletion of a low vitamin E state, was related to decreased lung cancer risk during a 28-year period. Our findings provide evidence supporting the importance of adequate physiological vitamin E status for lung cancer risk reduction.

Read More

Page 1 of 3123