Glutathione peroxidase 4 and vitamin E control reticulocyte maturation, stress erythropoiesis and iron homeostasis

Altamura S, Vegi NM, Hoppe PS, Schroeder T, Aichler M, Walch A, Okreglicka K, Hültner L, Schneider M, Ladinig C, Kuklik-Roos C, Mysliwietz J, Janik D, Neff F, Rathkolb B, Hrabé de Angelis M, Buske C, da Silva AR, Muedder K, Conrad M, Ganz T, Kopf M, Muckenthaler MU, Bornkamm GW

Haematologica. 2019 Jun 27. pii: haematol.2018.212977. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2018.212977. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is unique as it is the only enzyme that can prevent detrimental lipid peroxidation in vivo by reducing lipid peroxides to the respective alcohols thereby stabilizing oxidation products of unsaturated fatty acids. During reticulocyte maturation, 15-lipoxygenase-mediated lipid peroxidation in humans and rabbits and by 12/15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) in mice had been considered as the initiating event for the elimination of mitochondria which is now known to occur through mitophagy. Yet, genetic ablation of the Alox15 gene in mice failed to provide evidence for this hypothesis. We designed a different genetic approach to tackle this open conundrum. Since either other lipoxygenases or non-enzymatic autooxidative mechanisms may compensate for the loss of Alox15, we asked whether ablation of GPX4 in the hematopoietic system would result in perturbation of reticulocyte maturation. Quantitative assessment of erythropoiesis indices in the blood, bone marrow and spleen of chimeric mice with GPX4 ablated in hematopoietic cells revealed anemia with an increase in the fraction of erythroid precursor cells and reticulocytes. Additional dietary vitamin E depletion strongly aggravated the anemic phenotype. Despite strong extramedullary erythropoiesis reticulocytes failed to mature and accumulated large autophagosomes with engulfed mitochondria. GPX4-deficiency in hematopoietic cells led to systemic hepatic iron overload and simultaneous severe iron demand in the erythroid system. Despite extremely high erythropoietin and erythroferrone levels in the plasma, hepcidin expression remained unchanged. Conclusively, perturbed reticulocyte maturation in response to GPX4 loss in hematopoietic cells thus causes ineffective erythropoiesis, a phenotype partially masked by dietary vitamin E supplementation.

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Antagonistic effect of vitamin E on nAl2O3-induced exacerbation of Th2 and Th17-mediated allergic asthma via oxidative stress

Cui H, Huang J, Lu M, Zhang Q, Qin W, Zhao Y, Lu X, Zhang J, Xi Z, Li R

Environ Pollut. 2019 Jun 26;252(Pt B):1519-1531. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.06.092. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Some basic research has shown that nanomaterials can aggravate allergic asthma. However, its potential mechanism is insufficient. Based on the research that alumina nanopowder (nAl2O3) has been reported to cause lung tissue damage, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between nAl2O3 and allergic asthma as well as its molecular mechanism. In this study, Balb/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) to construct the allergic asthma model while intratracheally administered 0.5, 5 or 50 mg kg-1·day-1 nAl2O3 for 3 weeks. It was observed that exposure to nAl2O3 exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway remodeling, and inflammation cell infiltration, leading to lung function damage in mice. Results revealed that nAl2O3 could increase ROS levels and decrease GSH levels in lung tissue, promote the increases of the T-IgE, TGF-β, IL-1β and IL-6 levels, stimulate the overexpression of transcription factors GATA-3 and RORγt, decrease the levels of IFN-γ and IL-10 and increase the levels of IL-4 and IL-17A, resulting in the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 immune responses. In addition, antioxidant Vitamin E (Vit E) could alleviate asthma-like symptoms through blocking oxidative stress. The study displayed that exposure of nAl2O3 deteriorated allergic asthma through promoting the imbalances of Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17.

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Association of serum γ-tocopherol levels with mortality: the Multiethnic Cohort Study

Chai W, Maskarinec G, Franke AA, Monroe KR, Park SY, Kolonel LN, Wilkens LR, Le Marchand L, Cooney RV

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2019 Jun 26. doi: 10.1038/s41430-019-0460-7. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

γ-Tocopherol has unique properties that protect against nitrogen oxide-mediated cellular damage. To elucidate the potential role of γ-tocopherol in the aging process, we examined the associations of serum γ-tocopherol levels with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

Among participants in the biorepository subcohort of the Multiethnic Cohort Study, pre-cancer diagnostic serum γ-tocopherol levels were measured in a subset of 3904 men and 4461 women. Of these, 22.7% of men and 13.5% of women died during a mean follow-up time of 9.6 ± 2.6 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for mortality associated with γ-tocopherol were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression.

RESULTS:

Positive associations of serum γ-tocopherol with all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality (CVD) (Ptrend < 0.05) were detected after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and serum cholesterol levels. The respective HRs (95% CIs) for the highest versus the lowest sex-specific γ-tocopherol quartile were 1.43 (1.17-1.74), 1.79 (1.22-2.64), and 1.52 (1.10-2.11) for men and 1.58 (1.25-2.00), 1.59 (1.05-2.41), and 1.59 (1.07-2.37) for women. Associations remained significant for all-cause mortality among women after further adjusting for smoking variables and history of cancer, CVD, diabetes, and hypertension at cohort entry (highest vs. lowest γ-tocopherol quartile: HR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.08-1.75; Ptrend = 0.005). Overall, associations with all-cause mortality were consistent across race/ethnicity and were significant in three of ten sex-specific racial/ethnic groups in the fully adjusted models, with no interactions between ethnicity and γ-tocopherol.

CONCLUSIONS:

The positive association between γ-tocopherol and mortality suggests a potential physiological role for γ-tocopherol in response to pathological conditions.

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The vitamin E derivative garcinoic acid from Garcinia kola nut seeds attenuates the inflammatory response

Wallert M, Bauer J, Kluge S, Schmölz L, Chen YC, Ziegler M, Searle AK, Maxones A, Schubert M, Thürmer M, Pein H, Koeberle A, Werz O, Birringer M, Peter K, Lorkowski S

Redox Biol. 2019 Jun;24:101166. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101166. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Abstract

The plant Garcinia kola is used in African ethno-medicine to treat various oxidation- and inflammation-related diseases but its bioactive compounds are not well characterized. Garcinoic acid (GA) is one of the few phytochemicals that have been isolated from Garcinia kola. We investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanol extract of Garcinia kola seeds (NE) and purified GA, as a major phytochemical in these seeds, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and its anti-atherosclerotic potential in high fat diet fed ApoE-/- mice. This study outlines an optimized procedure for the extraction and purification of GA from Garcinia kola seeds with an increased yield and a purity of >99%. We found that LPS-induced upregulation of iNos and Cox2 expression, and the formation of the respective signaling molecules nitric oxide and prostanoids, were significantly diminished by both the NE and GA. In addition, GA treatment in mice decreased intra-plaque inflammation by attenuating nitrotyrosinylation. Further, modulation of lymphocyte sub-populations in blood and spleen have been detected, showing immune regulative properties of GA. Our study provides molecular insights into the anti-inflammatory activities of Garcinia kola and reveals GA as promising natural lead for the development of multi-target drugs to treat inflammation-driven diseases.

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Vitamin C and E supplementation effects on secretory and molecular aspects of vascular endothelial growth factor derived from peritoneal fluids of patients with endometriosis

Ansariniya H, Hadinedoushan H, Javaheri A, Zare F

J Obstet Gynaecol. 2019 Jun 24:1-6. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2019.1601167. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Endometriosis is an extremely heterogeneous disease and affects about ten percent of the female population during their reproductive years. Recent studies showed that endometriosis is an angiogenesis-dependent disease. Peritoneal macrophages are a well-characterised source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of this study was to determine the VEGF gene expression and production in peritoneal macrophages of patients with endometriosis under the effects of vitamins C and E in comparison with control. The lab trial study carried out on 50 patients undergoing laparoscopy and peritoneal fluid samples were collected from them. We compared the VEGF gene expression and production in peritoneal macrophages among groups by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively. Our results showed that gene expressions influenced by vitamin C increased in different concentrations and incubation times, except for the incubation time after 48 h. In the case of vitamin E, this was evident with the exception of vitamin E 50 μM after 24 h and vitamin E 100 μM after 48 h. Our findings indicated that vitamin C and E in different concentrations and incubation times altered VEGF gene expression in the peritoneal macrophages but they had not affected on VEGF productions. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Previous studies showed that antioxidants play a key role in the inhibition of oxidative stress-induced damages and the reduction of pelvic pain in patients with endometriosis. Vitamin E and vitamin C are the main components in neutralising free radicals. Also, antioxidant consumption such as vitamin C and vitamin E in women with endometriosis showed an inverse correlation between antioxidant intake and endometriosis pathology. What do the results of this study add? Vitamin C and E in different concentrations and times of incubation altered vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression and production in peritoneal macrophages. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Further studies are needed to determine the effects of C and E vitamins in different concentrations on vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression and production in peritoneal macrophages and the possible roles of these vitamins in treating endometriosis.

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COMT Effects on Vitamin E and Colorectal Cancer, in-vitro and in Two Randomized Trials (P15-005-19)

Hall K, Weinstein S, Buring J, Mukamal K, Moorthy MV, Ridker P, Albanes D, Cook N, Chasman D, Sesso H

Curr Dev Nutr. 2019 Jun 13;3(Suppl 1). pii: nzz037.P15-005-19. doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzz037.P15-005-19. eCollection 2019 Jun.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Despite promising observational data and compelling mechanisms of action, vitamin E has failed to demonstrate evidence of benefit in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). In two large long-term placebo-controlled RCTs, we reported that vitamin E effects on total cancer were modified by genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines. Here we investigate COMT effects on colorectal cancer (CRC) in the two RCTs and a CRC cell line.

METHODS:

We analyzed COMT rs4680 association with rates of CRC in the Women’s Health Study (WHS), N = 23,294 and a case/control (N = 2396/2235) subset of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC). Cell survival and apoptosis were examined in-vitro in HCT116 cells treated with increasing doses of vitamin E when COMT gene expression was inhibited by silencing RNA (siRNA).

RESULTS:

Rates of CRC were higher with randomized vitamin E compared to placebo among COMT high-activity val/val homozygotes in ATBC (HR, [CI] = 3.00, [1.48-6.09]), but not WHS (HR, [CI] = 0.99, [0.63-1.57]). Among low-activity met/met homozygotes randomized to vitamin E compared to placebo, rates of CRC were borderline lower in WHS (HR, [CI] = 0.66, [0.44-1.01]), but not in ATBC (HR, [CI] = 0.93, [0.63-1.62]).In cell culture, vitamin E at 3 µg/ml and 10 µg/mL had no effect on cell viability or apoptosis. However, silencing COMT resulted in a modest apoptotic effect that vitamin E enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Human apoptosis arrays indicated that in the absence of COMT expression, vitamin E induced protein expression related to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway through p53 activation, dysregulation of Bcl-2 family protein expression and down-regulation of IAP family protein expression.

CONCLUSIONS:

Differential COMT effects on vitamin E and CRC were similar to those previously reported for all invasive cancers, but were only significant for val/val homozygotes. Further, inhibiting COMT in the presence of vitamin E in a CRC in-vitro model, recapitulated the RCT observation that among individuals homozygous for the low-activity allele (met/met) vitamin E tended to reduce invasive cancer and here CRC.

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Chemoprevention of Azoxymethane-induced Colon Carcinogenesis by Delta-Tocotrienol

Husain K, Zhang A, Shivers S, Davis-Yadley A, Coppola D, Yang CS, Malafa MP

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2019 Jun;12(6):357-366. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-18-0290. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Abstract

This study evaluated the preclinical activity of δ-tocotrienol (DT3), a bioactive form of vitamin E, in the inhibition of colorectal cancer growth and development in vitro and in vivo DT3 is the most bioactive isomer of vitamin E in inhibiting growth of colorectal cancer cells. However, it had little effect on the proliferation of normal colon mucosal cells NCM460. In HCT-116 and SW-620 colorectal cancer cells, DT3 (50 μmol/L) significantly inhibited malignant transformation (P < 0.02, P < 0.001), cell migration (P < 0.02, P < 0.05), and invasion (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) compared with vehicle. DT3 inhibited markers for epithelial (E-cadherin) to mesenchymal (vimentin) transition, metastasis (matrix metalloproteinase 9), angiogenesis VEGF, inflammation (NF-κB), and Wnt signaling (β-catenin) compared with vehicle in colorectal cancer cells. DT3 induced apoptosis selectively in colorectal cancer cells (SW-620 cells, HCT-116 cells, and HT-29) without affecting the normal colon cells. In the azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis model in rats, DT3 (200 mg/kg orally twice a day) for 20 weeks significantly inhibited colorectal polyps by 70% and colorectal cancer by almost 99% compared with the vehicle treatment group (P < 0.02, P< 0.001), and the cancer inhibition effect was more potent than sulindac (50%). Taken together, these data demonstrate that DT3 is a potential chemopreventive agent in colorectal cancer, warranting further investigation into its clinical use in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer.

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Get the most out of Tocotrienols with Davoslife E3 Bio-Enhanced 20

DavosLife E3 Bio-Enhanced 20 is a patented self-emulsifying vitamin delivery system. This formulation contains the complete spectrum of Toco-trienols with α-Tocopherol and offers 46% higher bioavailability compared to a market sample. A higher bioavailability leads to a higher concentration of Vitamin E in the body, maximising the benefits of neutralising free radicals and reducing chronic inflammation. Tocotrienols are up to 60 times stronger in antioxidant activity compared to α-Tocopherol with unique anti-inflammatory properties.

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Vitamin E – Objective Marker of Healthful Diet and Long-Term Mortality

Tobias DK

Circ Res. 2019 Jun 21;125(1):41-42. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.315285. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Abstract

Huang et al of the ATBC study (Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention) reported a significant relationship between serum α-tocopherol with lower risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in men. The ATBC cohort analysis included 29 092 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years at baseline, and 23 787 deaths were observed over 31 years of follow-up. Compared with the bottom 20% of serum α-tocopherol concentrations, men in the top 20% experienced a 22% lower risk of total mortality. Their results were robust to several sensitivity and subgroup analyses and persisted over 31 years of observation.

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Relationship Between Serum Alpha-Tocopherol and Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality

Huang J, Weinstein SJ, Yu K, Männistö S, Albanes D

Circ Res. 2019 Jun 21;125(1):29-40. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.314944. Epub 2019 May 6.

Abstract

RATIONALE:

Although there has been a long-standing interest in the human health effects of vitamin E, a comprehensive analysis of the association between circulating vitamin E and long-term mortality has not been conducted.

OBJECTIVE:

Determine whether serum α-tocopherol (the predominant form of vitamin E) is related to long-term overall and cause-specific mortality and elucidate the dose-response relationships with better quantification of the associations.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We conducted a biochemical analysis of 29 092 participants in the ATBC Study (Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention) that originally tested vitamin E and β-carotene supplementation. Serum α-tocopherol was measured at baseline using high-performance liquid chromatography, and during a 30-year follow-up we identified 23 787 deaths, including deaths from cardiovascular disease (9867), cancer (7687), respiratory disease (2161), diabetes mellitus (119), injuries and accidents (1255), and other causes (2698). After adjusting for major risk factors, we found that men with higher serum α-tocopherol had significantly lower all-cause mortality (hazard ratios=0.83, 0.79, 0.75, and 0.78 for quintile 2 (Q2)-Q5 versus Q1, respectively; Ptrend<0.0001), and significantly decreased mortality from cardiovascular disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, respiratory disease, and other causes, with risk reductions from 17% to 47% for the highest versus lowest quintile. The α-tocopherol association with overall mortality was similar across subgroups of smoking intensity, years of smoking, alcohol consumption, trial supplementation, and duration of follow-up. The association was, however, significantly modified by baseline age and body mass index, with stronger inverse associations for younger men and men with a lower body mass index ( Pinteraction≤0.006).

CONCLUSIONS:

In this long-term prospective cohort study, higher baseline serum α-tocopherol biochemical status was associated with lower risk of overall mortality and mortality from all major causes. Our data support the long-term health benefits of higher serum α-tocopherol for overall and chronic disease mortality and should be replicated in other more diverse populations.

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