Adjuvant therapy with γ-tocopherol-induce apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer via cyclin-dependent cell cycle arrest mechanism

Bazzaz R, Bijanpour H, Pirouzpanah SMB, Yaghmaei P, Rashtchizadeh N

J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2019 Nov;33(11):e22399. doi: 10.1002/jbt.22399.

Abstract

Resistance to chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is the major obstacle to reach the maximum efficiency of CRC treatment. Combination therapy has emerged as a novel anticancer strategy. The present study evaluates the cotreatment of γ-tocopherol and 5-FU in enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy against HT-29 colon cancer cells. Cytotoxic effect of this combination was examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and a synergistic effect was evaluated by a combination index technique. Nuclear morphology was studied via 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and flow cytometric assays were conducted to identify molecular mechanisms of apoptosis and cell cycle progression. We investigated the expression of Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, Bax, and Bcl-2 by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The IC50 values for 5-FU and γ-tocopherol were 21.8  ± 2.5 and 14.4 ± 2.6 μM, respectively, and also this combination therapeutic increased the percentage of apoptotic cells from 35% ± 2% to 40% ±  4% (P  <  .05). Furthermore, incubation HT-29 colon cells with combined concentrations of two drugs caused significant accumulation of cells in the subGsubG1 phase. Our results presented the combination therapy with 5-FU and γ-tocopherol as a novel therapeutic approach, which can enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy.

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Over RM40m spent on palm oil R&D since 2016

THE government has spent over RM40.1 million on the nation’s palm oil research and development (R&D) programmes between 2016 and September this year.

“In addition, clinical research studies on the consumption of palm oil, red palm oil, as well as palm phytonutrients in particular vitamin E tocotrienols to assess the effect on health, is also in progress,” said Teresa Kok.

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ROS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome priming and activation mediate PCB 118- induced pyroptosis in endothelial cells.

Long Y, Liu X, Tan XZ, Jiang CX, Chen SW, Liang GN, He XM, Wu J, Chen T, Xu Y

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Nov 27:109937. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109937.

Abstract

Growing epidemiological evidence has shown that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is harmful to the cardiovascular system. However, how PCB 118-induced oxidative stress mediates endothelial dysfunction is not fully understood. Here, we explored whether and how PCB 118 exposure-induced oxidative stress leads to NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis in endothelial cells. As expected, PCB 118 was cytotoxic to HUVECs and induced caspase-1 activation and cell membrane disruption, which are characteristics of pyroptosis. Moreover, PCB 118-induced pyroptosis may have been due to the activation of the NLRP3 infammasomes. PCB 118 also induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HUVECs. The ROS scavenger (±)-α-tocopherol and the NFκB inhibitor BAY11-7082 reversed the upregulation of NLRP3 expression and the increase in NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by PCB 118 exposure in HUVECs. Additionally, PCB 118-induced oxidative stress and pyroptosis were dependent on Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and subsequent cytochrome P450 1A1 upregulation, which we confirmed by using the AhR selective antagonist CH 223191. These data suggest that PCB 118 exposure induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequently leads to pyroptosis in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. AhR-mediated ROS production play a central role in PCB 118-induced pyroptosis by priming NFκB-dependent NLRP3 expression and promoting inflammasome activation.

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Palm Tocotrienol-Adjuvanted Dendritic Cells Decrease Expression of the SATB1 Gene in Murine Breast Cancer Cells and Tissues

Abdul Hafid SR, Radhakrishnan AK

Vaccines (Basel). 2019 Nov 27;7(4). pii: E198. doi: 10.3390/vaccines7040198.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with tumor lysate (a DC vaccine) in combination with daily supplementation of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) to potentiate anti-tumor immune responses. We had previously reported that DC-vaccine immunotherapy together with TRF supplementation induced protective immunity to tumor challenge. Breast cancer was induced in female BALB/c mice. The mice were randomly assigned into the treatment groups. At autopsy, peripheral blood was collected in heparinized tube and the expression of cell surface molecules (CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86) that are crucial for T-cell activation and survival were analyzed by flow cytometry. Tumor was excised from each animal and snap-frozen. Total RNA was extracted from each tumor tissue for microarray and gene expression analysis. Total protein was extracted from tumor tissue for protein expression studies using Western blotting. The results show that systemic administration of 1 mg TRF daily in combination with DC-vaccine immunotherapy (DC + TL + TRF) caused a marked reduction (p < 0.05) of tumor size and increased (p < 0.05) the survival rates of the tumor-inoculated mice. The expression of CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86 were upregulated in peripheral blood from the DC + TL + TRF group compared to other groups. In addition, there was higher expression of FasL in tumor-excised mice from the DC + TL + TRF group compared to other groups. FasL plays an important role in maintaining immune privilege and is required for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity. Microarray analysis identified several genes involved in the regulation of cancer. In this study, we focused on the special AT rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) gene, which was reported to have dual functions, one of which was to induce aggressive growth in breast cancer cells. Tumors from DC + TL + TRF mice showed lower (p < 0.05) expression of SATB1 gene. Further study will be conducted to investigate the molecular functions of and the role of SATB1 in 4T1 mammary cancer cells and DC. In conclusion, TRF supplementation can potentiate the effectiveness of DC-vaccine immunotherapy.

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Association of vitamin E on the risk of ovarian cancer: A meta-analysis

Leng Y, Zhou H, Meng F, Tian T, Xu J, Yan F

Biosci Rep. 2019 Nov 27. pii: BSR20193311. doi: 10.1042/BSR20193311.

Abstract

Many researches were conducted to assess the association of vitamin E intake on the risk of ovarian cancer, with conflict results. The current meta-analysis of published observational studies aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin E intake on ovarian cancer risk. The summary relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to measure the effectiveness of vitamin E intake on ovarian cancer risk using a random-effects model. As a result, fourteen studies including 4597 patients were identified. Eleven studies reported about total vitamin E intake, eight studies about vitamin E intake from food only and five studies about vitamin E intake from supplement only on the risk of ovarian cancer. Overall, the summary RRs on ovarian cancer risk was 0.95 (95%CIs= 0.78-1.16) in total vitamin E intake, 0.99 (95%CIs= 0.77-1.27) in vitamin E intake from food only and 0.82 (95%CIs= 0.54-1.25) in vitamin E intake from supplement only. Results in subgroup analyses by study design and geographic location were consistent with overall result. In conclusions, the findings of this meta-analysis suggested that high intake of vitamin E from food or vitamin E supplement had no significant effect on the risk of ovarian cancer.

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Palm Tocotrienol-Adjuvanted Dendritic Cells Decrease Expression of the SATB1 Gene in Murine Breast Cancer Cells and Tissues

Abdul Hafid SR, Radhakrishnan AK

Vaccines (Basel). 2019 Nov 27;7(4). pii: E198. doi: 10.3390/vaccines7040198.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with tumor lysate (a DC vaccine) in combination with daily supplementation of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) to potentiate anti-tumor immune responses. We had previously reported that DC-vaccine immunotherapy together with TRF supplementation induced protective immunity to tumor challenge. Breast cancer was induced in female BALB/c mice. The mice were randomly assigned into the treatment groups. At autopsy, peripheral blood was collected in heparinized tube and the expression of cell surface molecules (CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86) that are crucial for T-cell activation and survival were analyzed by flow cytometry. Tumor was excised from each animal and snap-frozen. Total RNA was extracted from each tumor tissue for microarray and gene expression analysis. Total protein was extracted from tumor tissue for protein expression studies using Western blotting. The results show that systemic administration of 1 mg TRF daily in combination with DC-vaccine immunotherapy (DC + TL + TRF) caused a marked reduction (p < 0.05) of tumor size and increased (p < 0.05) the survival rates of the tumor-inoculated mice. The expression of CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86 were upregulated in peripheral blood from the DC + TL + TRF group compared to other groups. In addition, there was higher expression of FasL in tumor-excised mice from the DC + TL + TRF group compared to other groups. FasL plays an important role in maintaining immune privilege and is required for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity. Microarray analysis identified several genes involved in the regulation of cancer. In this study, we focused on the special AT rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) gene, which was reported to have dual functions, one of which was to induce aggressive growth in breast cancer cells. Tumors from DC + TL + TRF mice showed lower (p < 0.05) expression of SATB1 gene. Further study will be conducted to investigate the molecular functions of and the role of SATB1 in 4T1 mammary cancer cells and DC. In conclusion, TRF supplementation can potentiate the effectiveness of DC-vaccine immunotherapy.

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Synthesis, DFT Calculations, and In Vitro Antioxidant Study on Novel Carba-Analogs of Vitamin E

Baj A, Cedrowski J, Olchowik-Grabarek E, Ratkiewicz A, Witkowski S

Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Nov 26;8(12). pii: E589. doi: 10.3390/antiox8120589.

Abstract

Vitamin E is the most active natural lipophilic antioxidant with a broad spectrum of biological activity. α-Tocopherol (α-T), the main representative of the vitamin E family, is a strong inhibitor of lipid peroxidation as a chain-breaking antioxidant. Antioxidant and antiradical properties of vitamin E result from the presence of a phenolic hydroxyl group at the C-6 position. Due to stereoelectronic effects in the dihydropyranyl ring, the dissociation enthalpy for phenolic O-H bond (BDEOH) is reduced. The high chain-breaking reactivity of α-T is mainly attributed to orbital overlapping of the 2p-type lone pair on the oxygen atom (O1) in para position to the phenolic group, and the aromatic π-electron system. The influence of the O1 atom on the antioxidant activity of vitamin E was estimated quantitatively. The all-rac-1-carba-α-tocopherol was synthesized for the first time. Along with model compounds, 1-carba-analog of Trolox and its methyl ester were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activity by inhibition of styrene oxidation, and for the radical-reducing properties by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging assay. To study the antioxidant activity, density functional theory (DFT) was also applied. Reaction enthalpies related to HAT (hydrogen atom transfer), SET-PT (sequential electron transfer-proton transfer), and SPLET (sequential proton loss-electron transfer) mechanisms were calculated.

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Development of a Novel Pharmaceutical Formula of Nanoparticle Lipid Carriers of Gentamicin/α-Tocopherol and In Vivo Assessment of the Antioxidant Protective Effect of α-Tocopherol in Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

Elfaky MA, Thabit AK, Sirwi A, Fahmy UA, Bahabri RM, Al-Awad EA, Basaeed LF

Antibiotics (Basel). 2019 Nov 25;8(4). pii: E234. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics8040234.

Abstract

Gentamicin is a potent antibiotic with a nephrotoxicity drawback which limits its use. D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (α-tocopherol) is widely used as a surfactant and have potent antioxidant properties. This study aimed to assess the protective effect of α-tocopherol on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by loading gentamicin on nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). In vivo, the product was administered intravenously to three groups of rabbits (control, gentamicin and gentamicin/α-tocopherol NLC) for 10 consecutive days. Blood was collected on days 1, 5 and 10 to assess renal function. A significant difference in all plasma parameters related to kidney function were observed in the gentamicin group compared to the control by day 5 and 10, confirming the nephrotoxicity effect. On the other hand, the same parameter levels of the NLC group were significantly different compared to the gentamicin group, confirming the protective effect on kidney function. Gentamicin also caused significant decreases in plasma levels of glutathione sulfhydryl (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. However, gentamicin-α-tocopherol NLC significantly elevates both plasma levels of GSH as well as SOD activity. The present work indicates that, loading of gentamicin on NLC by using α-tocopherol, is an innovative strategy to protect against aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity due to its antioxidant activity.

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Boosting your brain function as you age

Research shows that tocotrienols protect against cardiovascular disease by decreasing artery stiffness, which occurs due to age and the accumulation of fatty plaques on our artery walls, and high blood pressure, which is a risk factor for many cardiovascular conditions.

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