Why red palm oil is good for diabetics

Vitamin E from red palm oil can reduce damage to the nerves, eyes and kidneys in people with diabetes, an endocrinologist has told FMT.

Dr Khalid Abdul Kadir of Monash University said he had found that nerve damage was reduced in diabetics who were given 400 mg per day of Vitamin E tocotrienols derived from palm oil.

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Antioxidant status following postprandial challenge of two different doses of tocopherols and tocotrienols

Fairus S, Cheng HM, Sundram K

J Integr Med. 2019 Nov 23. pii: S2095-4964(19)30113-X. doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.11.005.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Tocotrienols (T3s) have been hypothesized to have greater antioxidant capacity than tocopherols (Ts) due to differences in biokinetics that affect their absorption and function. The present trial compares the antioxidant effectiveness following postprandial challenge of two different doses of α-T or palm T3-rich fraction (TRF) treatments and evaluates their dose-response effects on antioxidant status.

METHODS:

Ten healthy volunteers were given four different doses of vitamin E formulations (268 mg α-T, 537 mg α-T, 263 mg TRF or 526 mg TRF) in a cross-over postprandial trial. Blood was sampled at 0, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 hours after meal consumption and plasma antioxidant status including total glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant potential and trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity, was analyzed.

RESULTS:

Supplementation with the different doses of either α-T or TRF did not significantly improve overall antioxidant status. There was no significant difference in overall antioxidant status among treatments at the different doses compared. However, a significant dose-response effect was observed for plasma MDA throughout the 8-hour postprandial period. MDA was significantly lower after the 537 mg α-T treatment, compared to the 268 mg α-T treatment; it was also lower after the 526 mg TRF treatment compared to the 263 mg TRF treatment (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

T3 and α-T demonstrated similar antioxidant capacity, despite markedly lower levels of T3 in blood and lipoproteins, compared to α-T.

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Single-Cell RNA-seq Reveals Profound Alterations in Mechanosensitive Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons with Vitamin E Deficiency

Finno CJ, Peterson J, Kang M, Park S, Bordbari MH, Durbin-Johnson B, Settles M, Perez-Flores MC, Lee JH, Yamoah EN

iScience. 2019 Nov 22;21:720-735. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2019.10.064.

Abstract

Ninety percent of Americans consume less than the estimated average requirements of dietary vitamin E (vitE). Severe vitE deficiency due to genetic mutations in the tocopherol transfer protein (TTPA) in humans results in ataxia with vitE deficiency (AVED), with proprioceptive deficits and somatosensory degeneration arising from dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGNs). Single-cell RNA-sequencing of DRGNs was performed in Ttpa-/- mice, an established model of AVED. In stark contrast to expected changes in proprioceptive neurons, Ttpa-/- DRGNs showed marked upregulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ and K+ channels in mechanosensitive, tyrosine-hydroxylase positive (TH+) DRGNs. The ensuing significant conductance changes resulted in reduced excitability in mechanosensitive Ttpa-/- DRGNs. A highly supplemented vitE diet (600 mg dl-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) prevented the cellular and molecular alterations and improved mechanosensation. VitE deficiency profoundly alters the molecular signature and functional properties of mechanosensitive TH+ DRGN, representing an intriguing shift of the prevailing paradigm from proprioception to mechanical sensation.

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Bioactive Compounds: Natural Defense Against Cancer?

Subramaniam S, Selvaduray KR, Radhakrishnan AK

Biomolecules. 2019 Nov 21;9(12). pii: E758. doi: 10.3390/biom9120758.

Abstract

Cancer is a devastating disease that has claimed many lives. Natural bioactive agents from plants are gaining wide attention for their anticancer activities. Several studies have found that natural plant-based bioactive compounds can enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy, and in some cases ameliorate some of the side-effects of drugs used as chemotherapeutic agents. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature on the anticancer effects of four plant-based bioactive compounds namely, curcumin, myricetin, geraniin and tocotrienols (T3) to provide an overview on some of the key findings that are related to this effect. The molecular mechanisms through which the active compounds may exert their anticancer properties in cell and animal-based studies also discussed.

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Tocotrienol-rich fraction from annatto ameliorates expression of lysyl oxidase in human osteoblastic MG-63 cells

Kohno K, Yamada W, Ishitsuka A, Sekine M, Virgona N, Ota M, Yano T

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2019 Nov 19:1-10. doi: 10.1080/09168451.2019.1693252.

Abstract

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is required for the formation of bone collagen cross-links. Inactivation of the LOX gene in osteoblasts by DNA methylation and JAK signaling has been reported to cause loss of cross-links and an increased risk of fractures. Tocotrienols (T3s) have proven benefits on bone strength, but their potential effects on LOX remain largely unknown. Thus, the present study investigates the in vitro effects of T3s on LOX expression in human osteoblastic MG-63 cells. Results indicated that Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF), the δ-T3 rich oil extracted from Annatto was the most effective and significantly increased LOX expression. TRF treatment decreased de-novo methyltransferases (DNMTs), DNMT3A and DNMT3B levels. In addition, TRF significantly inhibited JAK2 activation and decreased expression of Fli1, a transcription factor of DNMTs. We conclude that TRF induced an increase in LOX expression via inhibition of de-novo methylation and reduction of Fli1 expression by the inactivation of JAK2.

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Plasma versus Erythrocyte Vitamin E in Renal Transplant Recipients, and Duality of Tocopherol Species

Sotomayor CG, Rodrigo R, Gomes-Neto AW, Gormaz JG, Pol RA, Minović I, Eggersdorfer ML, Vos M, Riphagen IJ, de Borst MH, Nolte IM, Berger SP, Navis GJ, Bakker SJL

Nutrients. 2019 Nov 19;11(11). pii: E2821. doi: 10.3390/nu11112821.

Abstract

Redox imbalance is an adverse on-going phenomenon in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Vitamin E has important antioxidant properties that counterbalance its deleterious effects. However, plasma vitamin E affinity with lipids challenges interpretation of its levels. To test the hypothesis that erythrocyte membranes represent a lipids-independent specimen to estimate vitamin E status, we performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of adult RTR (n = 113) recruited in a university setting (2015-2018). We compared crude and total lipids-standardized linear regression-derived coefficients of plasma and erythrocyte tocopherol species in relation to clinical and laboratory parameters. Strongly positive associations of fasting lipids with plasma tocopherol became inverse, rather than absent, in total lipids-standardized analyses, indicating potential overadjustment. Whilst, no variables from the lipids domain were associated with the tocopherol species measured from erythrocyte specimens. In relation to inflammatory status and clinical parameters with antioxidant activity, we found associations in directions that are consistent with either beneficial or adverse effects concerning α- or γ-tocopherol, respectively. In conclusion, erythrocytes offer a lipids-independent alternative to estimate vitamin E status and investigate its relationship with parameters over other biological domains. In RTR, α- and γ-tocopherol may serve as biomarkers of relatively lower or higher vulnerability to oxidative stress and inflammation, noticeably in opposite directions.

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The Vitamin E Derivative Gamma Tocotrienol Promotes Anti-Tumor Effects in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

Ghanem P, Zouein A, Mohamad M, Hodroj MH, Haykal T, Abou Najem S, Naim HY, Rizk S

Nutrients. 2019 Nov 17;11(11). pii: E2808. doi: 10.3390/nu11112808.

Abstract

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a blood cancer characterized by the formation of faulty defective myelogenous cells with morphological heterogeneity and cytogenic aberrations leading to a loss of their function. In an attempt to find an effective and safe AML treatment, vitamin E derivatives, including tocopherols were considered as potential anti-tumor compounds. Recently, other isoforms of vitamin E, namely tocotrienols have been proposed as potential potent anti-cancerous agents, displaying promising therapeutic effects in different cancer types. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancerous effects of γ-tocotrienol, on AML cell lines in vitro. For this purpose, AML cell lines incubated with γ-tocotrienol were examined for their viability, cell cycle status, apoptotic cell death, DNA fragmentation, production of reactive oxygen species and expression of proapoptotic proteins. Our results showed that γ-tocotrienol exhibits time and dose-dependent anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and antioxidant effects on U937 and KG-1 cell lines, through the upregulation of proteins involved in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

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Vitamin E prevents the cognitive impairments in post-traumatic stress disorder rat model: behavioral and molecular study

Ahmed M, Alzoubi KH, Khabour OF

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2019 Nov 16. doi: 10.1007/s00213-019-05395-w.

Abstract

RATIONALE:

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder developed after an exposure to severe traumatic events. Patients with PTSD suffer from different symptoms including memory impairment. In addition, PTSD is associated with oxidative stress. Vitamin E, a fat-soluble vitamin, possesses cognition protective effects via its antioxidative properties.

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the impact of vitamin E on memory impairment induced by PTSD in animals.

METHODS:

A rat model of PTSD-like behavior and the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for testing of learning and memory paradigm were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups: control, vitamin E, PTSD, and vitamin E + PTSD.

RESULTS:

In the learning phase, results showed no significant differences among experimental groups, indicating that PTSD-like behavior did not impair learning ability in rats. However, memory tests in the RAWM showed that PTSD-like animals had impairment in both short-term and long-term memories. Vitamin E, on the other hand, prevented this impairment of memory. With respect to oxidative stress, significant decreases were detected in reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase enzyme activities, global histone 3 acetylation, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the PTSD-like animals group compared with other groups (P < 0.05). Vitamin E protected the reduction of these oxidative stress biomarkers, global histone 3 acetylation, and BDNF levels.

CONCLUSIONS:

Vitamin E prevented memory impairment associated with PTSD-like behavior in animals, probably via its antioxidative properties, and preservation of epigenetic changes induced in PTSD-like animals.

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Vitamin e-loaded membrane dialyzers reduce hemodialysis inflammaging

Sepe V, Gregorini M, Rampino T, Esposito P, Coppo R, Galli F, Libetta C

BMC Nephrol. 2019 Nov 15;20(1):412. doi: 10.1186/s12882-019-1585-6.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Inflammaging is a persistent, low-grade, sterile, nonresolving inflammatory state, associated with the senescence of the immune system. Such condition downregulates both innate and adaptive immune responses during chronic disorders as type II diabetes, cancer and hemodialysis, accounting for their susceptibility to infections, malignancy and resistance to vaccination. Aim of this study was to investigate hemodialysis inflammaging, by evaluating changes of several hemodialysis treatments on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 activity and nitric oxide formation.

METHODS:

We conducted a randomized controlled observational crossover trial. Eighteen hemodialysis patients were treated with 3 different hemodialysis procedures respectively: 1) Low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis, 2) Low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis with vitamin E - loaded dialyzers, and 3) Hemodialfitration. The control group consisted of 14 hospital staff healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected from all 18 hemodialysis patients just after the long interdialytic interval, at the end of each hemodialysis treatment period.

RESULTS:

Hemodialysis kynurenine and kynurenine/L - tryptophan blood ratio levels were significantly higher, when compared to the control group, indicating an increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 activity in hemodialysis patients. At the end of the low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis with vitamin E - loaded dialyzers period, L - tryptophan serum levels remained unchanged vs both low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis and hemodialfitration. Kynurenine levels instead decreased, resulting in a significant reduction of kynurenine/L - tryptophan blood ratio and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 activity, when matched to both low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis and HDF respectively. Serum nitric oxide control group levels, were significantly lower when compared to all hemodialysis patient groups. Interestingly, low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis with vitamin E - loaded dialyzers nitric oxide serum levels from venous line blood samples taken 60 min after starting the hemodialysis session were significantly lower vs serum taken simultaneously from the arterial blood line.

CONCLUSIONS:

The treatment with more biocompatible hemodialysis procedure as low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis with vitamin E - loaded dialyzers, reduced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 activity and nitric oxide formation when compared to both low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis and hemodialfitration. These data suggest that low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis with vitamin E - loaded dialyzers lowering hemodialysis inflammaging, could be associated to changes of proinflammatory signalling a regulated molecular level.

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