Effect of High Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome on Tissue Vitamin E and Lipid Peroxide Levels in Rats

Akira Kitagawa, Yoshiji Ohta, Koji Ohashi, Koji Yashiro, Kenji Fukuzawa

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) . 2020;66(2):200-206. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.66.200.

Abstract

In the present study, we examined the effect of high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) on tissue vitamin E and lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in rats. Feeding of a diet containing 60% fructose (HFD) to Wistar rats for 2, 4, and 6 wk caused week-dependent increases in HOMA-IR score and serum insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and free fatty acid concentrations. Each week HFD feeding increased serum vitamin E concentration. Six-week HFD feeding reduced vitamin E status (the serum ratio of vitamin E/triglyceride+total cholesterol). Four- and 6-wk HFD feeding increased serum LPO concentration. Two-week HFD feeding increased liver, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle (SM) vitamin E contents and decreased white adipose tissue (WAT) vitamin E content. Four- and 6-wk HFD feeding further reduced WAT vitamin E content without affecting the increased kidney and SM vitamin E contents. Six-week HFD feeding reduced the increased liver and heart vitamin E contents below the level of non-HFD feeding. Four-week HFD feeding increased heart and WAT LPO contents. Six-week HFD feeding increased liver LPO content and further increased heart and WAT LPO contents. Kidney and SM LPO contents remained unchanged. These results indicate that HFD-rats with early MetS have increased liver, kidney, heart, and SM vitamin E contents and decreased WAT vitamin E content under unchanged tissue LPO content and vitamin E status, while HFD-fed rats with progressed MetS have both decreased liver, heart, and WAT vitamin E contents under increased tissue LPO content and disrupted vitamin E status.

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E-Cigarettes, Vaping Devices, and Acute Lung Injury

Nathan K Cobb, Jigna N Solanki

Respir Care . 2020 May;65(5):713-718. doi: 10.4187/respcare.07733.

Abstract

“E-cigarettes” are a class of consumer devices designed to deliver drugs, primarily nicotine or marijuana oils, to the lung by vaporization. Regulation of the devices in the United States is relatively minimal, and research on both epidemiology and potential toxicity has focused on nicotine devices. In 2019, an outbreak of an acute respiratory illness in the United States was traced back to the contamination of e-cigarette fluids with vitamin E acetate, which had been used to disguise the dilution of marijuana oils. The outbreak, termed “e-cigarette or vaping associated lung injury” by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, was characterized by pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxia, which usually required hospitalization and, often, admission to ICUs. The syndrome sickened >2,600 people, mostly young men, and killed >50 people before it began to abate 6 months later. No current regulations exist to prevent a similar event with the same or different chemical contaminants. Absent such regulation, respiratory practitioners should be prepared to evaluate, identify, and treat future cases of acute lung toxicity from e-cigarettes.

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Comparative Efficacy of Vitamin Supplements on Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Disease: Systematic Review With Network Meta-Analysis

Ji Han, Chunyang Zhao, Jiayi Cai, Yu Liang

Complement Ther Clin Pract . 2020 May;39:101142. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2020.101142. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Abstract

Background: Vitamins are commonly used in the prevention of major cardiovascular disease. However, the efficacy and optimum choice remain controversial.

Objective: To compare and rank the relative efficacy among all available vitamin preparations for cardiovascular disease through a network meta-analysis.

Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane library and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials. A random effects model was applied within a frequentist framework.

Results: Forty-two articles (45 comparisons, 384,248 participants), including nine vitamin interventions, were identified. Vitamin D had the highest probability of being ranked best in effectiveness (0.84 [0.72, 0.98]) on prevention of cardiovascular events. With regard to reducing death of cardiovascular disease rate, vitamin E was considered better efficacy.

Conclusions: Vitamin B, D and E could reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events to varying degrees. At the same time, the combination of vitamins can not show improvement on the efficacy.

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Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Diabetes Mellitus

Gebran Khneizer, Syed Rizvi, Samer Gawrieh

Adv Exp Med Biol . 2020 May 19. doi: 10.1007/5584_2020_532.

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the leading liver disease globally. NAFLD patients can have a progressive phenotype, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that could lead to cirrhosis, liver failure and cancer. There is a close bi-directional relationship between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); NAFLD increases the risk for T2DM and its complications whereas T2DM increases the severity of NAFLD and its complications. The large global impact of NAFLD and T2DM on healthcare systems requires a paradigm shift from specialty care to early identification and risk stratification of NAFLD in primary care and diabetes clinics. Approach to diagnosis, risk stratification and management of NAFLD is discussed. In addition to optimizing the control of coexisting cardiometabolic comorbidities, early referral of NAFLD patients at high risk of having NASH or significant fibrosis to hepatology specialist care may improve management and allow access for clinical trials. Lifestyle modifications, vitamin E, pioglitazone and metformin are currently available options that may benefit patients with T2DM and NAFLD. The burst of clinical trials investigating newer therapeutic agents for NAFLD and NASH offer hope for new, effective and safe therapies in the near future.

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Researchers make discoveries regarding breast milk

The main findings of this project include the following: the amount of RRR-alpha-tocopherol, a natural form of vitamin E, accounts for more than 75 percent of the total alpha-tocopherol in breast milk and umbilical cord blood; Xanthophyll is of the highest amount compared with any other carotenoid to promote fetuses’ and infants’ visual development.

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Lab insight: measuring vitamins

An interesting analytical challenge still exists for measuring vitamin E in foods. In the US, the FDA defines declarable vitamin E as alpha‑tocopherol where there is both a very bioactive naturally‑occurring form, and a less bioactive man‑made form.1 The FDA requires manufacturers to make and keep written records to verify the amount of both forms1 because there is no recognised analytical method that differentiates between the two. Until a method is developed and internationally recognised, the lab needs to have access to those records to properly calculate the amount placed in a nutritional facts panel.

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Opinion: Vaping and Vitamin E: What Went Wrong?

Many people struggle to quit smoking cigarettes to prevent and slow lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder.
Nicotine is such an addictive substance that in a desperate attempt to get healthy many people turned to e-cigarettes, which delivered the nicotine in a vapor instead of smoke. But instead of getting healthier, these former smokers got worse. In addition, healthy, young people started experimenting with recreational vaping, and despite their health and youth, they, too, developed serious lung problems.

Why did this happen? What went wrong?

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Nodular Panniculitis in a Cat With High Alpha Tocopherol Concentration in Serum

Martin Steffl, Nadine Nautscher, Alexander Kröpfl, Michael Granvogl

Vet Med Sci . 2020 May 18. doi: 10.1002/vms3.286. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

A 5-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat suffered from recurrent solitary nodules in different subcutaneous body regions. Nodules were surgically removed and each time histopathological diagnosis was fat necrosis and fibrosing to pyogranulomatous panniculitis. After the second surgery the alpha (α)-tocopherol concentration in serum of the cat was examined and the result (21 mg/L) exceeded the upper limit of the reference interval (3-11 mg/L). Vitamin E amount in diet fed solely in the past was checked as studies have shown that vitamin E amounts in food significantly influence vitamin E concentrations in serum. For comparative purposes, α-tocopherol concentrations were determined in sera of healthy control cats. Additionally, vitamin E amount in wet food from different manufacturers was analysed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the diet did not have higher vitamin E amounts compared to other diets. All control cats had similar high serum α-tocopherol concentrations. We conclude that panniculitis can occur despite high serum α-tocopherol concentrations in cats. Further studies are needed to redefine reference values of α-tocopherol in serum of cats.

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Improving tumor hypoxia and radiotherapy resistance via in situ nitric oxide release strategy

Tu J, Tu K, Xu H, Wang L, Yuan X, Qin X, Kong L, Chu Q, Zhang Z

Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2020 May;150:96-107. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2020.03.003. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Abstract

Radiation therapy remains one of the main treatments for cancer. However, conventional radiotherapy not only manifests a low radiation accumulation in the tumor site, but also displays numerous negative effects. The most serious clinical problem is the radiotherapy resistance leading to cancer deterioration. As an important gaseous signal molecule, nitric oxide (NO) has been widely studied for its role in regulating angiogenesis, improving hypoxia, and inhibiting tumor growth. However, due to the unstable characteristic, the application of NO in cancer therapy is still limited. Here, we designed a micellar system formed by a NO donor, D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-NO, for enabling sustained NO release to efficiently deliver NO into the tumor area. TPGS-NO could accumulate in the tumor site for extended circulation, thereby releasing NO to exert antitumor effects and enhance radiotherapy effects under low-oxygen conditions. It demonstrated the increased sensitivity of radiotherapy through enhancing tumor angiogenesis appropriately reducing tumor area hypoxia, which significantly induced tumor cell apoptosis and inhibited its repair during radiation. This work may show great potential in synergistic radiotherapy against cancer by facile NO donor administration.

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