Vitamin E isoform γ-tocotrienol protects against emphysema in cigarette smoke-induced COPD.

Peh HY, Tan WSD, Chan TK, Pow CW, Foster PS, Wong WSF.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 Sep;110:332-344. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.06.023. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Abstract

Inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to emphysema in COPD. Although corticosteroids are the standard of care for COPD, they do not reduce oxidative stress, and a subset of patients is steroid-resistant. Vitamin E isoform γ-tocotrienol possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties that may protect against emphysema. We aimed to establish the therapeutic potential of γ-tocotrienol in cigarette smoke-induced COPD models in comparison with prednisolone. BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 weeks or 2 months. γ-Tocotrienol and prednisolone were given orally. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were assessed for inflammation, oxidative damage, and regulation of transcription factor activities. Emphysema and lung function were also evaluated. γ-Tocotrienol dose-dependently reduced cigarette smoke-induced BAL fluid neutrophil counts and levels of cytokines, chemokines and oxidative damage biomarkers, and pulmonary pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant gene expression, but restored lung endogenous antioxidant activities. γ-Tocotrienol acted by inhibiting nuclear translocation of STAT3 and NF-κB, and up-regulating Nrf2 activation in the lungs. In mice exposed to 2-month cigarette smoke, γ-tocotrienol ameliorated bronchial epithelium thickening and destruction of alveolar sacs in lungs, and improved lung functions. In comparison with prednisolone, γ-tocotrienol demonstrated better anti-oxidative efficacy, and protection against emphysema and lung function in COPD. We revealed for the first time the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacies of γ-tocotrienol in cigarette smoke-induced COPD models. In addition, γ-tocotrienol was able to attenuate emphysematous lesions and improve lung function in COPD. γ-Tocotrienol may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of COPD.

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Gamma-tocotrienol profoundly alters sphingolipids in cancer cells by inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase and possibly activation of sphingolipid hydrolysis during prolonged treatment.

Jang Y, Rao X, Jiang Q.

J Nutr Biochem. 2017 Aug;46:49-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.04.003. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Abstract

Vitamin E gamma-tocotrienol (γTE) is known to have anticancer effects, but mechanisms underlying these actions are not clear. Here using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we show that γTE induced marked changes of sphingolipids including rapid elevation of dihydrosphingosine and dihydroceramides (dhCers) in various types of cancer cells. The elevation of dihydrosphingolipids coincided with increased cellular stress, as indicated by JNK phosphorylation, and was prior to any sign of induction of apoptosis. Chemically blocking de novo synthesis of sphingolipids partially counteracted γTE-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Experiments using 13C315N-labeled l-serine together with enzyme assays indicate that γTE inhibited cellular dihydroceramide desaturase (DEGS) activity without affecting its protein expression or de novo synthesis of sphingolipids. Unlike the effect on dhCers, γTE decreased ceramides (Cers) after 8-h treatment but increased C18:0-Cer and C16:0-Cer after 16 and 24 h, respectively. The increase of Cers coincides with γTE-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Since γTE inhibits DEGS and decreases de novo Cer synthesis, elevation of Cers during prolonged γTE treatment is likely caused by sphingomeylinase-mediated hydrolysis of sphingomyelin. This idea is supported by the observation that an acid sphingomeylinase inhibitor partially reversed γTE-induced cell death. Our study demonstrates that γTE altered sphingolipid metabolism by inhibiting DEGS activity and possibly by activating SM hydrolysis during prolonged treatment in cancer cells.

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Inhibition of rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) by ischemia/reperfusion and its recovery by vitamin E in ventricular myocytes.

Chen Y, Yin C, Yang Y, Fan Z, Shang J, Tan W.

J Electrocardiol. 2017 Jul - Aug;50(4):437-443. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2017.03.007. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Abstract

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces prolongation of QT interval and action potential duration (APD), which is a major cardiac electrical disorder in patients with arrhythmias. However, the mechanism of QT interval prolongation induced by I/R remains unclear. In the present study, we hypothesized that the rapid component of delayed rectifier potassium (IKr) channel plays an important role in I/R-induced QT interval prolongation. We observed a marked attenuation of IKr and a significant prolongation of action potential duration (APD) in a simulated I/R system with sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4) in ventricular myocytes of guinea pigs. The IKr current density was inhibited by 64% and APD increased by 87% respectively. Moreover, the inhibition of IKr is primarily ascribed to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by I/R, which can be partly reversed by antioxidant vitamin E (100μmol/L). The value of IKr tail current density increased from 0.516±0.040 pA/pF in I/R to 0.939±0.091 pA/pF when treated with vitamin E. Moreover, we also demonstrated that QTc interval was increased by I/R and reversed by Vitamin E in isolated guinea pig hearts. In conclusion, the inhibition of IKr is one of the underlying mechanisms of prolongation of QT interval and APD in I/R. Vitamin E might have a benefit in coronary reperfusion therapy.

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The Response of Macro- and Micronutrient Nutrient Status and Biochemical Processes in Rats Fed on a Diet with Selenium-Enriched Defatted Rapeseed and/or Vitamin E Supplementation.

Rýdlová M, Růnová K, Száková J, Fučíková A, Hakenová A, Mlejnek P, Zídek V, Tremlová J, Mestek O, Kaňa A, Zídková J, Melčová M, Truhlářová K, Tlustoš P.

Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:6759810. doi: 10.1155/2017/6759810. Epub 2017 May 30.

Abstract

The response of nutrient status and biochemical processes in (i) Wistar and (ii) spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats upon dietary intake of selenium- (Se-) enriched defatted rapeseed (DRS) and/or vitamin E fortification was examined to assess the health benefit of DRS in animal nutrition. Twenty-four individuals of each type of rat were used: The control group was fed with an untreated diet (Diet A). In Diets B and C, soybean meal was replaced with defatted DRS, which comprised 14% of the total diet. The selenized DRS application resulted in ~3-fold increase of Se content in the diet. Diet C was also fortified with the addition of vitamin E, increasing the natural content by 30%. The Se content of the blood and kidneys tended to increase in the DRS groups, where the changes were significant (P < 0.05) only in the case of SHR rats. The iodine (I) content and the proportion of iodide in rat livers indicated a lower transformation rate of iodide into organoiodine compounds compared to the control. Slight and ambiguous alterations in the antioxidative response of the rat were observed in the DRS groups, but the addition of vitamin E to the diet helped to moderate these effects.

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Inhibition of rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) by ischemia/reperfusion and its recovery by vitamin E in ventricular myocytes.

Chen Y, Yin C, Yang Y, Fan Z, Shang J, Tan W.

J Electrocardiol. 2017 Jul - Aug;50(4):437-443. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2017.03.007. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Abstract

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces prolongation of QT interval and action potential duration (APD), which is a major cardiac electrical disorder in patients with arrhythmias. However, the mechanism of QT interval prolongation induced by I/R remains unclear. In the present study, we hypothesized that the rapid component of delayed rectifier potassium (IKr) channel plays an important role in I/R-induced QT interval prolongation. We observed a marked attenuation of IKr and a significant prolongation of action potential duration (APD) in a simulated I/R system with sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4) in ventricular myocytes of guinea pigs. The IKr current density was inhibited by 64% and APD increased by 87% respectively. Moreover, the inhibition of IKr is primarily ascribed to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by I/R, which can be partly reversed by antioxidant vitamin E (100μmol/L). The value of IKr tail current density increased from 0.516±0.040 pA/pF in I/R to 0.939±0.091 pA/pF when treated with vitamin E. Moreover, we also demonstrated that QTc interval was increased by I/R and reversed by Vitamin E in isolated guinea pig hearts. In conclusion, the inhibition of IKr is one of the underlying mechanisms of prolongation of QT interval and APD in I/R. Vitamin E might have a benefit in coronary reperfusion therapy.

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The effect of tocopheryl phosphates (TPM) on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein-e deficient mice.

Libinaki R, Vinh A, Tesanovic-Klajic S, Widdop RE, Gaspari TA.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2017 Jul 26. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.12821. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

α-Tocopheryl phosphate (TP) is a naturally occurring form of Vitamin E found in the body. In the present study we compared the ability of an α-TP mixture (TPM) against a standard Vitamin E supplement, α-tocopherol acetate (TA) on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-deficient mice. Mice were maintained on either a normal chow diet for 24 weeks (Normal Diet), versus a group in which the final 8 weeks of the 24 week period mice were placed on a high fat (21%), high cholesterol (0.15%) challenge diet (HFHC), to exacerbate atherosclerotic lesion development.. The difference in these two control groups established the extent of the diet induced atherosclerotic lesion development. Mice in the various treatment groups received either TA (300mg/kg chow) or TPM (6.7 to 200mg/kg chow) for 24 weeks, with TPM treatment resulting in dose-dependent significant reductions in atherosclerotic lesion formation and plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. TA-treated mice, with the tocopherol equivalent TPM dose (200mg/kg chow), showed no significant reduction in plasma lipid levels or evidence for aortic lesion regression. At this TPM equivalent TA dose, a 44% reduction in aortic lesion formation was observed. In addition, these TPM treated mice, also showed a marked reduction in aortic superoxide formation and decreased circulating plasma levels of known pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α. These findings indicate that TPM treatment slows progression of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-deficient mice with this effect potentially involving reduced oxidative stress and decreased inflammation.

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Gamma tocopherol-enriched supplement reduces sputum eosinophilia and endotoxin-induced sputum neutrophilia in volunteers with asthma.

Burbank AJ, Duran CG, Pan Y, Burns P, Jones S, Jiang Q, Yang C, Jenkins S, Wells H, Alexis N, Kesimer M, Bennett WD, Zhou H, Peden DB, Hernandez ML.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Jul 20. pii: S0091-6749(17)31110-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.06.029. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We and others have shown that the gamma tocopherol (γT) isoform of vitamin E has multiple anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions and that γT supplementation reduces eosinophilic and endotoxin (LPS)-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation in animal models and healthy human volunteers.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine if γT supplementation reduces eosinophilic airway inflammation and acute neutrophilic response to inhaled LPS challenge in volunteers with asthma.

METHODS:

Participants with mild asthma were enrolled in a double-blinded, placebo controlled crossover study to assess the effect of 1200 mg of γT daily for 14 days on sputum eosinophils, mucins and cytokines. We also assessed the effect on acute inflammatory response to inhaled LPS challenge following γT treatment, focusing on changes in sputum neutrophilia, mucins and cytokines. Mucociliary clearance was measured using gamma scintigraphy.

RESULTS:

Fifteen subjects with mild asthma completed both arms of the study. Compared to placebo, γT notably reduced pre-LPS challenge sputum eosinophils and mucins, including MUC5AC, and reduced LPS-induced airway neutrophil recruitment 6 and 24-hours after challenge. Mucociliary clearance was slowed 4-hours post-challenge in the placebo group but not in the γT treatment group. Total sputum mucins (but not MUC5AC) were reduced at 24-hours post-challenge during γT treatment compared to placebo.

CONCLUSION:

γT supplementation for 14 days reduced inflammatory features of asthma, including sputum eosinophils and mucins, as well as acute airway response to inhaled LPS challenge when compared to placebo. Larger scale clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy of γT supplements as a complementary or steroid-sparing treatment for asthma.

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Emerging targets to relieve fat stress-induced liver diseases: UDCA, tocotrienol, -3 PUFAs, and IgY targeted NPC1L1 cholesterol transporter.

Cha JY, Park JM, Lee HJ, Bae JS, Han YM, Oh BC, Ko KH, Hahm KB.

Curr Pharm Des. 2017 Jul 14. doi: 10.2174/1381612823666170714124824. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Fat stress-induced liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome initiated by excess fat accumulation and encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a precursor lesion progressing to more aggressive liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the incidence of these fat stress-induced liver diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and metabolic diseases, its exact pathogenesis is not well defined. Although obesity, sedentary life-style, altered dietary pattern, insulin resistance, altered intestinal barrier function, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress have been acknowledged as contributing factors because of the indefinite pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, the only reliable treatment is lifestyle intervention composed of restrictive diet and exercise. Additionally, some existing medications such as pioglitazone and antioxidants such as vitamin E were reported to be effective; in this review, several novel agents especifically targeting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis under clinical trial will be introduced. These include an NPC1L1 blocker (ezetimibe), which significantly improved histological and symptomatic scores associated with steatohepatitis and fibrosis; clofibrate, phentoxyfylline, ursodeoxycholic acid, and tocopherol, all of which are prescribed to relieve fat stress; and additional IgY targeted NPC1L1, tocotrienol, ursodeoxycholic acid, and -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are actively under investigation to confirm the safety of long-term use.

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Potential role of natural compounds as anti-angiogenic agents in cancer.

Shanmugam MK, Warrier S, Kumar AP, Sethi G, Arfuso F.

Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017 Jul 12. doi: 10.2174/1570161115666170713094319. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Neovascularization, also known as angiogenesis, is the process of capillary sprouting from pre-existing blood vessels. This physiological process is a hallmark event in normal embryonic development as blood vessels generally supply both oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body. Any disruption in this process can lead to the development of various chronic diseases, including cancer. In cancer, aberrant angiogenesis plays a prominent role in maintaining sustained tumor growth to malignant phenotypes and promoting metastasis. The leakiness in the tumor microvasculature is attributed to the tumor cells migrating to distal site organs and forming colonies.

METHODS:

In this article, we briefly review the various mediators involved in the angiogenic process and the anti-angiogenic potential of selected natural compounds against various malignancies.

RESULTS:

Several growth factors and their receptors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor (VEGF/VEGFR), basic fibroblast growth factor and receptor (bFGF/FGFR), angiopoietins, and hypoxia inducible factors facilitate the development of angiogenesis and are attractive anti-cancer targets. Natural products represent a rich diversity of compounds for drug discovery and are currently being actively exploited to target tumor angiogenesis.

CONCLUSION:

Agents such as curcumin, artemisinin and its semi-synthetic derivatives, EGCG, pentacyclic triterpenoids, resveratrol, emodin, celastrol, thymoquinone and tocotrienols all have shown prominent anti-angiogenic effects in the preclinical models of tumor angiogenesis. Several semi-synthetic derivatives and novel nano-formulations of natural compounds have also exhibited excellent anti-angiogenic activity by increasing bioavailability and delivering the drugs to the sites of tumor angiogenesis.

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The effect of almonds on vitamin E status and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean adults: a randomized clinical trial.

Jung H, Chen CO, Blumberg JB, Kwak HK.

Eur J Nutr. 2017 Jul 10. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1480-5. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Almonds have shown to beneficially modify some cardiovascular risk factors in clinical trials conducted in diverse ethnic populations but this relationship has never been tested in Koreans. Thus, we tested the impact of almonds consumed as a snack within the context of a typical Korean diet on cardiovascular risk factors.

METHODS:

We conducted a randomized, crossover trial in a free-living setting with a 2-week run-in period, two 4-week intervention phases, and a 2-week washout period between interventions. Eighty four overweight/obese participants (11 M/73 F; 52.4 ± 0.6 year; 25.4 ± 0.22 kg/m2) consumed either 56 g of almonds or isocaloric cookies daily for 4 weeks.

RESULTS:

Mean % daily energy intake at baseline was 64.8, 21.3, and 14.9% from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively. The addition of 56 g of almonds daily decreased carbohydrate energy to 55.0%, increased fat to 32.0%, and maintained protein at 14.7%. Consuming the almonds increased intake of MUFA by 192.3%, PUFA by 84.5%, vitamin E by 102.7%, and dietary fiber by 11.8% and decreased % energy from carbohydrate by 14.1%. Total caloric intake was increased by the almonds, but body weight, waist circumference, and body composition were not affected. Almonds in overweight and obese Korean adults decreased TC, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C by 5.5, 4.6, and 6.4%, respectively, compared to the cookie control (P ≤ 0.05). Almonds increased plasma α-tocopherol by 8.5% (P ≤ 0.05) from the baseline and tended to increase its value as compared to cookies (P = 0.055). Neither the almonds nor cookies altered plasma protein carbonyls, MDA or oxLDL. Of serum inflammatory markers, IL-10 was decreased by almond intake (P ≤ 0.05), and ICAM-1, IL-1β, and IL-6 tended to be lower with almonds, compared to the cookies.

CONCLUSIONS:

Almonds at 56 g/day consumed as a snack favorably modified the Korean diet by increasing MUFA, PUFA, vitamin E, and dietary fiber intake and decreasing % energy intake from carbohydrate. Almonds also enhanced plasma α-tocopherol status and serum TC and LDL-C in overweight and obese Koreans. Thus, including almonds in typical Korean diets as a snack can help healthy overweight/obese individuals improve nutritional status and reduce their risk for CVD.

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