γ-tocotrienol inhibits the invasion and migration of human gastric cancer cells through downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression.

Zhang YH, Ma K, Liu JR, Wang HX, Tian WX, Tu YH, Sun WG

Oncol Rep. 2018 Aug;40(2):999-1007. doi: 10.3892/or.2018.6497. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Abstract

γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3), a tocotrienol isoform belonging to the vitamin E family, has been revealed to exert inhibitory effects on proliferation, migration and invasion in human gastric cancer cells. However, its precise mechanism of action is still unclear and needs to be further tested. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is well known for its key role in promoting the migration and invasion abilities of human gastric cancer cells. In light of these data, our study aimed to validate whether the inhibitory actions of γ-T3 could be achieved by downregulation of COX-2 activity in vitro. In the present study, a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to observe proliferation in human gastric cancer cells (SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells), and wound healing and Transwell chamber assays were performed to detect migration and invasion. Western blot analyses were performed to analyse the relative expression of COX-2, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) proteins, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to determine the exocrine roles of MMP-2 and MMP-9. The results revealed that γ-T3 exerted significant inhibitory effects on proliferation, migration, invasion and COX-2 protein expression, as well as on exocrine functions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells. Therefore, our results indicated that γ-T3 exerts inhibitory effects on migration and invasion, which may be mediated through downregulation of COX-2 expression in SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells.

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Vitamin E alleviates phoxim-induced toxic effects on intestinal oxidative stress, barrier function, and morphological changes in rats

Sun Y, Zhang J, Song W, Shan A

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Jul 12. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-2666-y. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Phoxim is an organic phosphorus pesticide that remains easily in the environment, such as human food and animal feed. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of vitamin E on phoxim-induced oxidative stress in the intestinal tissues of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a control group and three treatment groups: treatment group 1 (phoxim: 20 mg/kg·BW), treatment group 2 (phoxim: 180 mg/kg·BW), and treatment 3 (vitamin E + phoxim: 200 mg/kg·BW + 180 mg/kg·BW). Phoxim was given by gavage administration once a day for 28 days. The results showed that phoxim significantly reduced jejunum villus height in rats (P < 0.05), and decreased the mRNA expression of junction protein genes of rats, including Occlidin and Claudin-4 (P < 0.05). Phoxim reduced GSH content and T-AOC level in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of oxidative stress-related genes (Nrf2 and GPx2) were decreased. The mRNA expression of SOD was significantly increased. In addition, phoxim increased the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in jejunum mucosa and significantly reduced the level of IL-8 in ileum mucosas, while significantly increased TNF-α secretion. The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly decreased, and mRNA expression of TNF-α was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Phoxim also increased the DNA expression of total cecal bacteria and Escherichia coli, inhibited the DNA expression of Lactobacillus and destroyed the intestinal barrier. Two hundred milligrams per kilogram BW vitamin E reduced the effect of phoxim on intestinal structure, alleviated the oxidative stress in intestinal tissue, and decreased the level of TNF-α. The mRNA expressions of antioxidative stress genes (SOD and GPx2) were significantly increased. The DNA expression level of Lactobacillus was significantly increased. In conclusion, vitamin E helped reduce the toxicity of organophosphate pesticides, such as phoxim on rat intestinal tissue.

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Cellular Uptake and Bioavailability of Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction in SIRT1-Inhibited Human Diploid Fibroblasts

Jaafar F, Abdullah A, Makpol S

Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 11;8(1):10471. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-28708-z.

Abstract

Tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) is palm vitamin E that consists of tocopherol and tocotrienol. TRF is involved in important cellular regulation including delaying cellular senescence. A key regulator of cellular senescence, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in lipid metabolism. Thus, SIRT1 may regulate vitamin E transportation and bioavailability at cellular level. This study aimed to determine the role of SIRT1 on cellular uptake and bioavailability of TRF in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). SIRT1 gene in young HDFs was silenced by small interference RNA (siRNA) while SIRT1 activity was inhibited by sirtinol. TRF treatment was given for 24 h before or after SIRT1 inhibition. Cellular concentration of TRF isomers was determined according to the time points of before and after TRF treatment at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Our results showed that all tocotrienol isomers were significantly taken up by HDFs after 24 h of TRF treatment and decreased 24 h after TRF treatment was terminated but remained in the cell up to 72 h. The uptake of α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and β-tocotrienol was significantly higher in senescent cells as compared to young HDFs indicating higher requirement for vitamin E in senescent cells. Inhibition of SIRT1 gene increased the uptake of all tocotrienol isomers but not α-tocopherol. However, SIRT1 inhibition at protein level decreased tocotrienol concentration. In conclusion, SIRT1 may regulate the cellular uptake and bioavailability of tocotrienol isomers in human diploid fibroblast cells while a similar regulation was not shown for α-tocopherol.

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Angiogenesis and Full-Thickness Wound Healing Efficiency of a Copper-Doped Borate Bioactive Glass/Poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) Dressing Loaded with Vitamin E in Vivo and in Vitro

Hu H, Tang Y, Pang L, Lin C, Huang W, Wang D, Jia W

Send to ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018 Jul 11;10(27):22939-22950. doi: 10.1021/acsami.8b04903. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Abstract

There is an urgent demand for wound healing biomaterials because of the increasing frequency of traffic accidents, industrial contingencies, and natural disasters. Borate bioactive glass has potential applications in bone tissue engineering and wound healing; however, its uncontrolled release runs a high risk of rapid degradation and transient biotoxicity. In this study, a novel organic-inorganic dressing of copper-doped borate bioactive glass/poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) loaded with vitamin E (0-3.0 wt % vitamin E) was fabricated to evaluate its efficiency for angiogenesis in cells and full-thickness skin wounds healing in rodents. In vitro results showed the dressing was an ideal interface for the organic-inorganic mixture and a controlled release system for Cu2+ and vitamin E. Cell culture suggested the ionic dissolution product of the copper-doped and vitamin E-loaded dressing showed the best migration, tubule formation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and higher expression levels of angiogenesis-related genes in fibroblasts in vitro. Furthermore, this dressing also suggested a significant improvement in the epithelialization of wound closure and an obvious enhancement in vessel sprouting and collagen remodeling in vivo. These results indicate that the copper-doped borate bioactive glass/poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) dressing loaded with vitamin E is effective in stimulating angiogenesis and healing full-thickness skin defects and is a promising wound dressing in the reconstruction of full-thickness skin injury.

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Impacts of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on mRNA of heat shock proteins, selenoproteins and antioxidants in broilers exposed to high temperature.

Kumbhar S, Khan AZ, Parveen F, Nizamani ZA, Siyal FA, El-Hack MEA, Gan F, Liu Y, Hamid M, Nido SA, Huang K

AMB Express. 2018 Jul 10;8(1):112. doi: 10.1186/s13568-018-0641-0.

Abstract

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on mRNA level of heat shock proteins, selenoproteins, and antioxidant enzyme activities in the breast meat of broilers under summer heat stress conditions. A total of 200 male broilers (Ross 308) of 1 day age were randomly separated into 4 groups in a complete randomized design and were given a basal diet (Control, 0.08 mg Se/kg diet) or basal diet supplemented with VE (250 mg/kg VE), sodium selenite (0.2 mg/kg Se), or Se + VE (0.2 mg/kg Se + 250 mg/kg VE) to investigate the expression of key antioxidant and heat shock protein (HSP) genes under high temperature stress. Dietary Se, VE and Se + VE significantly enhanced the activities and mRNA levels of catalase as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) but decreased the mRNA levels of HSP70 and HSP90. Se alone or combined with VE increased the concentration of selenoprotein P and selenoproteins mRNA level and decreased the expression of HSP60. In addition, Se and Se + VE significantly enhanced the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and the expression of GPx1 and GPx4 in breast muscle tissues. It is noteworthy that all the treatments significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the breast meat. Overall results showed that Se in combination with VE has maximal effects to mitigate heat stress. Based on given results it can be recommended that Se + VE are a suitable dietary supplement for broilers to ameliorate the negative effects of summer heat stress conditions.

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Vitamin E-stabilized UHMWPE: Biological response on human osteoblasts to wear debris

Galliera E, Ragone V, Marazzi MG, Selmin F, Banci L, Romanelli MMC

Clin Chim Acta. 2018 Jul 10. pii: S0009-8981(18)30348-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2018.07.012. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

UHMWPE doped with vitamin E was introduced to provide oxidation resistance upon sterilization, without affecting UHMWPE’s mechanical properties. Particle-induced macrophage activation leads to periprosthetic bone resorption, requiring total joint replacements. During osteolysis, osteoblasts produce osteoimmunological factors such as RANKL and OPG, and the inhibitors of the Wnt pathway DKK-1 and Sclerostin. This study investigated in vitro how vitamin E-blended-UHMWPE wear debris might affect osteoblast-mediated osteolysis and the production of RANKL, OPG, Sclerostin and DKK-1, compared to conventional UHMWPE wear debris. Human osteoblastic SaOS2 cells were incubated with wear particles from Vitamin E doped and conventional UHMWPE and the gene expression and protein production of IL-6, RANKL, OPG, DKK-1, and Sclerostin was evaluated, RANKL, a bone erosion marker, was reduced, while OPG, a bone protective marker, were increased by the vitamin E-blended UHMWPE compared to conventional UHMWPE. Vitamin E doped UHMWPE reduced Sclerostin level, and partially affected DKK-1 production, thereby protecting against bone erosion. In conclusion, Vitamin E-blended UHMWPE induced an osteoimmunological response in bone cells that had positive effects on the osteolysis induced by wear debris, reducing aseptic loosening of the implants. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that Vitamin E-blended UHMWPE induced an osteoimmunological response in bone cells that positively affect the osteolysis induced by wear debris, thereby reducing the aseptic loosening of the implants.

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A Review on the Relationship between Tocotrienol and Alzheimer Disease

Chin KY, Tay SS

Nutrients. 2018 Jul 9;10(7). pii: E881. doi: 10.3390/nu10070881.

Abstract

Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is plaguing the aging population worldwide due to its tremendous health care and socioeconomic burden. Current treatment of AD only offers symptomatic relief to patients. Development of agents targeting specific pathologies of AD is very slow. Tocotrienol, a member of the vitamin E family, can tackle many aspects of AD, such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal cholesterol synthesis. This review summarizes the current evidence on the role of tocotrienol as a neuroprotective agent. Preclinical studies showed that tocotrienol could reduce oxidative stress by acting as a free-radical scavenger and promoter of mitochondrial function and cellular repair. It also prevented glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in the cells. Human epidemiological studies showed a significant inverse relationship between tocotrienol levels and the occurrence of AD. However, there is no clinical trial to support the claim that tocotrienol can delay or prevent the onset of AD. As a conclusion, tocotrienol has the potential to be developed as an AD-preventing agent but further studies are required to validate its efficacy in humans.

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Exploring the potential of tocotrienol from Bixa orellana as a single agent targeting metabolic syndrome and bone loss

Wong SK, Chin KY, Suhaimi FH, Ahmad F, Ima-Nirwana S

Bone. 2018 Jul 7. pii: S8756-3282(18)30260-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2018.07.003. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with osteoporosis due to the underlying inflammatory and hormonal changes. Annatto tocotrienolhas been shown to improve medical complications associated with MetS or bone loss in animal studies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of annatto tocotrienol as a single treatment for MetS and osteoporosis in high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet-induced MetS animals. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. The baseline group was euthanized at the onset of the study. The normal group received standard rat chow and tap water. The remaining groups received HCHF diet and treated with three different regimens orally daily: (a) tocopherol-stripped corn oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol), (b) 60 mg/kg annatto tocotrienol, and (c) 100 mg/kg annatto tocotrienol. At the end of the study, measurements of MetS parameters, body compositions, and bone mineral density were performed in animals before sacrifice. Upon euthanasia, blood and femur of the rats were harvested for the evaluations of bone microstructure, biomechanical strength, remodelling activities, hormonal changes, and inflammatory response. Treatment with annatto tocotrienol improved all MetS parameters (except abdominal obesity), trabecular bone microstructure, bone strength, increased osteoclast number, normalized hormonal changes and inflammatory response in the HCHF animals. In conclusion, annatto tocotrienol is a potential agent for managing MetS and osteoporosis concurrently. The beneficial effects of annatto tocotrienol may be attributed to its ability to prevent the hormonal changes and pro-inflammatory state in animals with MetS.

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a-Tocopherol modifies the expression of genes related to oxidative stress and apoptosis during invitro maturation and enhances the developmental competence of rabbit oocytes

Arias-Álvarez M, García-García RM, López-Tello J, Rebollar PG, Gutiérrez-Adán A, Lorenzo PL

Reprod Fertil Dev. 2018 Jul 3. doi: 10.1071/RD17525. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

The developmental competence of invitro maturation (IVM) oocytes can be enhanced by antioxidant agents. The present study investigated, for the first time in the rabbit model, the effect of adding α-tocopherol (0, 100, 200 and 400µM) during IVM on putative transcripts involved in antioxidant defence (superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), catalase (CAT)), cell cycle regulation and apoptosis cascade (apoptosis tumour protein 53 (TP53), caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine protease (CASP3)), cell cycle progression (cellular cycle V-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1 (AKT1)), cumulus expansion (gap junction protein, alpha 1, 43 kDa (GJA1) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclo-oxygenase) (PTGS2)) and metabolism (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)). Meiotic progression, mitochondrial reallocation, cumulus cell apoptosis and the developmental competence of oocytes after IVF were also assessed. Expression of SOD2, CAT, TP53, CASP3 and GJA1 was downregulated in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) after IVM with 100μM α-tocopherol compared with the group without the antioxidant. The apoptotic rate and the percentage of a non-migrated mitochondrial pattern were lower in COCs cultured with 100μM α-tocopherol, consistent with better-quality oocytes. In fact, early embryo development was improved when 100μM α-tocopherol was included in the IVM medium, but remained low compared with invivo-matured oocytes. In conclusion, the addition of 100μM α-tocopherol to the maturation medium is a suitable approach to manage oxidative stress and apoptosis, as well as for increasing the in vitro developmental competence of rabbit oocytes.

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Vitamin E as alternative local treatment in genitourinary syndrome of menopause: a randomized controlled trial

Golmakani N, Parnan Emamverdikhan A, Zarifian A, Sajadi Tabassi SA, Hassanzadeh M

Int Urogynecol J. 2018 Jul 3. doi: 10.1007/s00192-018-3698-z. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS:

Genitourinary syndrome of menopause is a major health concern in postmenopausal women. This study was aimed at comparing the effect of a vitamin E vaginal suppository with that of conjugated estrogen vaginal cream on sexual function in postmenopausal women with genitourinary syndrome of menopause.

METHODS:

This survey was carried out on 52 postmenopausal women aged 40-65 years who had been referred to gynecology clinics in Mashhad city, during 2013-2014. Keeping β = 0.1, the power was calculated to be 90%. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: vitamin E vaginal suppository and conjugated estrogen vaginal cream. Participants used the medications for 12 weeks. They were visited at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks. Validated Abbreviated Sexual Function Questionnaire (ASFQ), as the primary outcome measure, and a demographic information questionnaire, were used to collect data at each visit. Data were analyzed using SPSS and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS:

Mean overall scores of the ASFQ were increased significantly in both groups during the course of the study, compared with baseline (p < 0.001). However, the mean ASFQ scores of the two treatments did not differ significantly.

CONCLUSION:

Improved scores of ASFQ after the 12th week showed that the treatment was successful in both groups. Therefore, a vitamin E vaginal suppository may be an alternative to vaginal estrogen in relieving the symptoms of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women, especially those not able to use hormone therapy or have low compliance.

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