Using vitamin E to prevent the impairment in behavioral test, cell loss and dendrite changes in medial prefrontal cortex induced by tartrazine in rats.

Rafati A, Nourzei N, Karbalay-Doust S, Noorafshan A.

Acta Histochem. 2017 Mar;119(2):172-180. doi: 10.1016/j.acthis.2017.01.004. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Abstract

Tartrazine is a food color that may adversely affect the nervous system. Vitamin E is a neuro-protective agent. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of tartrazine and vitamin E on the performance of rats in memory and learning tests as well as the structure of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). The rats were first divided into seven groups which received the followings for a period of seven weeks: distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), a low dose (50mg/kg/day) and a high dose (50mg/kg/day) of tartrazine with and without vitamin E. Behavioral tests were conducted and the brain was extracted for stereological methods The high dose of tartrazine decreased the exploration time of novel objects (P<0.01). The low and high doses of tartrazine led into an increase in working and reference memory errors in acquisition and retention phases (eight-arm radial maze) compared to distilled water group (P<0.01). Additionally, the high dose of tartrazine induced a reduction in the volume of mPFC (∼13%) and its subdivision. Not only that, but the number of neurons and glial cells (∼14%) as well as the mushroom and thin spines per dendrite length declined. The length of dendrites per neuron also reduced in comparison to the distilled water group (P<0.01). Nonetheless, concomitant treatment of the rats with vitamin E plus tartrazine prevented the above-mentioned changes. An acceptable daily dose of tartrazine could induce impairment in spatial memory and dendrite structure. Moreover, a high dose of tartrazine may defect the visual memory, mPFC structure, the spatial memory and also cause dendrite changes. Vitamin E could prevent the behavioral and structural changes.

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Association of dietary vitamin E intake with risk of lung cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis.

Zhu YJ, Bo YC, Liu XX, Qiu CG.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;26(2):271-277. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.032016.04.

Abstract

Several epidemiological studies investigating the association between dietary vitamin E intake and the risk of lung cancer have demonstrated inconsistent results. Hence, a meta-analysis was conducted to summarise evidence of the association of dietary vitamin E intake with the risk of lung cancer. In this meta-analysis, a systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science was conducted to identify relevant studies published from 1955 to April 2015. If p<0.05 or I2 >50%, a random effect model was used to estimate overall relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Otherwise, a fixed effect model was applied. Publication bias was estimated using the funnel plot and Egger’s test. The doseresponse relationship was assessed using the method of restricted cubic splines with 4 knots at percentiles 5, 35, 65, and 95 of the distribution. The pooled RR of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest categories of dietary vitamin E intake was 0.84 (95% CI=0.76-0.93). With every 2 mg/d increase in dietary vitamin E intake, the risk of lung cancer statistically decreased by 5% (RR=0.95, 95% CI =0.91-0.99, plinearity=0.0237). Our analysis suggests that higher dietary vitamin E intake exerts a protective effect against lung cancer.

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Vitamin E-coated dialysis membranes reduce the levels of oxidative genetic damage in hemodialysis patients.

Rodríguez-Ribera L, Corredor Z, Silva I, Díaz JM, Ballarín J, Marcos R, Pastor S, Coll E.

utat Res. 2017 Mar;815:16-21. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2017.01.003. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Abstract

End-stage renal disease patients present oxidative stress status that increases when they are submitted to hemodialysis (HD). This increase in oxidative stress can affect their genetic material, among other targets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using polysulfone membranes coated with vitamin E, during the HD sessions, on the levels of genetic damage of HD patients. Forty-six patients were followed for 6 months, of whom 29 changed from conventional HD to the use of membranes coated with vitamin E. The level of genetic damage was measured using the micronucleus and the comet assays, both before and after the follow-up period. Serum vitamin E concentration was also checked. The obtained results showed that 24% of our patients presented vitamin E deficiency, and this was normalized in those patients treated with vitamin E-coated membranes. Patients with vitamin E deficiency showed higher levels of oxidative DNA damage. After the use of vitamin E-coated membranes we detected a significant decrease in the levels of oxidative damage. Additionally, hemoglobin values increased significantly with the use of vitamin E-coated membranes. In conclusion, the use of vitamin E-coated membranes supposes a decrease on the levels of oxidative DNA damage, and improves the uremic anemia status. Furthermore, the use of this type of membrane was also effective in correcting vitamin E deficiency.

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Inhibitory Effects of γ- and δ-Tocopherols on Estrogen-Stimulated Breast Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo.

Bak MJ, Das Gupta S, Wahler J, Lee HJ, Li X, Lee MJ, Yang CS, Suh N.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2017 Mar;10(3):188-197. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-16-0223. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

Abstract

Estrogens have been implicated as complete carcinogens for breast and other tissues through mechanisms involving increased cell proliferation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Because of their potent antioxidant activity and other effects, tocopherols have been shown to exert antitumor activities in various cancers. However, limited information is available on the effect of different forms of tocopherols in estrogen-mediated breast cancer. To address this, we examined the effects of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols as well as a natural γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols, γ-TmT, on estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo For the in vivo studies, MCF-7 cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice previously implanted with estrogen pellets. Mice were then administered diets containing 0.2% α-, γ-, δ-tocopherol, or γ-TmT for 5 weeks. Treatment with α-, γ-, δ-tocopherols, and γ-TmT reduced tumor volumes by 29% (P < 0.05), 45% (P < 0.05), 41% (P < 0.05), and 58% (P < 0.01), as well as tumor weights by 20%, 37% (P < 0.05), 39% (P < 0.05), and 52% (P < 0.05), respectively. γ- and δ-tocopherols and γ-TmT inhibited the expression of cell proliferation-related genes such as cyclin D1 and c-Myc, and estrogen-related genes such as TFF/pS2, cathepsin D, and progesterone receptor in estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells in vitro Further, γ- and δ-tocopherols decreased the levels of estrogen-induced oxidative stress and nitrosative stress markers, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine, as well as the DNA damage marker, γ-H2AX. Our results suggest that γ- and δ-tocopherols and the γ-tocopherol-rich mixture are effective natural agents for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-mediated breast cancer.

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Current and future pharmacologic treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Banini BA, Sanyal AJ.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2017 Mar 24. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000356. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the aggressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in 5-15% of patients and is rapidly becoming the leading cause for end-stage liver disease. Dietary caloric restriction and exercise, currently the cornerstone of therapy for NAFLD, can be difficult to achieve and maintain, underscoring the dire need for pharmacotherapy. This review presents the agents currently used in managing NAFLD and their pharmacologic targets. It also provides an overview of NAFLD agents currently under development. Therapies for NASH can be broadly classified into agents that target the metabolic perturbations driving disease pathogenesis (such as insulin resistance and de novo lipogenesis) and agents that target downstream processes including cell stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptors, farnesoid-X-receptors, and the glucagon-like peptide 1 pathway have been shown to improve liver histology. The intestinal microbiome and metabolic endotoxemia are novel targets that are currently under review. Antioxidants such as vitamin E, and more recently anti-inflammatory agents such as apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 inhibitors show promise as therapy for NASH. Several antifibrotic agents including cysteine-cysteine motif chemokine receptor type 2 and type 5 antagonists have been shown to inhibit the progression of fibrosis toward cirrhosis. There are currently several agents in the drug pipeline for NASH. Within the next few years, the availability of therapeutic options for NAFLD will hopefully curb the rising trend of NAFLD-related end stage liver disease.

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The effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on clinical and metabolic status in patients with Parkinson’s disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Taghizadeh M, Tamtaji OR, Dadgostar E, Kakhaki RD, Bahmani F, Abolhassani J, Aarabi MH, Kouchaki E, Memarzadeh MR, Asemi Z.

Neurochem Int. 2017 Mar 22. pii: S0197-0186(17)30073-6. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2017.03.014. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

The current research was performed to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic status in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 60 patients with PD. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks. Unified Parkinson’s disease rating stage (UPDRS) were recorded at baseline and the after 3-month intervention. After 12 weeks’ intervention, compared with the placebo, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation led to a significant improve in UPDRS (-3.3 ± 10.0 vs. +4.4 ± 14.9, P = 0.02). Furthermore, co-supplementation decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-0.3 ± 0.6 vs. +0.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, P < 0.001), and increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (+65.2 ± 68.7 vs. +16 ± 52.4 μmol/L, P = 0.003) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations (+41.4 ± 80.6 vs. -19.6 ± 55.9 μmol/L, P = 0.001) compared with the placebo. Additionally, co-supplementation meaningfully decreased insulin (-2.1 ± 4.9 vs. +1.4 ± 6.2 μIU/mL, P = 0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-0.7 ± 1.8 vs.+0.3 ± 1.6, P = 0.02) and Beta cell function (-5.9 ± 13.9 vs. +5.7 ± 25.5, P = 0.03), and increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.009 ± 0.02 vs. -0.006 ± 0.03, P = 0.03) compared with the placebo. Overall, our study demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation in people with PD had favorable effects on UPDRS, hs-CRP, TAC, GSH and markers of insulin metabolism.

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Vitamin E-rich Nanoemulsion Enhances the Antitumor Efficacy of Low-Dose Paclitaxel by Driving Th1 Immune Response.

Ye J, Dong W, Yang Y, Hao H, Liao H, Wang, Han X, Jin Y, Xia X, Liu Y.

Pharm Res. 2017 Mar 21. doi: 10.1007/s11095-017-2141-3. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

To overcome the drawbacks of high dose regimen and improve the outcomes of chemotherapy at a low dose, an immunotherapeutic nanoemulsion based combination of chemotherapeutic agent (paclitaxel) with immunomodulatory agent (vitamin E) was developed and evaluated for their antitumor effect against breast cancer. A total of five nanoemulsions loaded with various content of vitamin E were prepared and characterized. The immunoregulatory effects of vitamin E along with the overall antitumor efficacy of vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion with a low dose of paclitaxel were investigated through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion exhibited relatively narrow size distribution, high entrapment efficiency and controlled in vitro release profile. In RAW264.7 cells, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion significantly enhanced the secretion of Th1 cytokines and down-regulated the secretion of Th2 cytokine. In a co-culture system, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion induced a high apoptosis rate in MDA-MB-231 cells as compared with vitamin E-low nanoemulsion. Furthermore, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion exhibited superior in vivo antitumor efficacy in comparison with Taxol and vitamin E-low nanoemulsion at a paclitaxel dose of 4 mg/kg. Vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion has great potential for the treatment of breast cancers with a low dose of paclitaxel via driving Th1 immune response.

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The Influence of α-Tocopherol on Serum Biochemical Markers During Experimentally Induced Pleuritis in Rats Exposed to Dioxin.

Całkosiński I, Gostomska-Pampuch K, Majda J, Leśków A, Janeczek M, Melnyk OP, Gamian A.

Inflammation. 2017 Mar 15. doi: 10.1007/s10753-017-0536-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Toxicity of dioxins is wide ranging. Amongst the organs, the liver is the most susceptible to damage by dioxins. Damage caused to liver cells results in promoting inflammatory processes. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether high doses of tocopherol will change the inflammatory response, monitored by biochemical indicators, by improving liver function in rats exposed to tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The study was conducted on a population of female Buffalo rats. The animals were divided into the following groups: Control Group A-representing physiological norms for the studied diagnostic indicators; Control Group B-subjects were administered a 1% ceragenin solution to induce pleuritis; Study Group 1-where rats were administered α-tocopherol acetate for 3 weeks, after which pleuritis was induced; Study Group 2-rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), while 3 weeks later, pleuritis was induced; and Study Group 3-rats were administered a single dose of TCDD and next, were administered α-tocopherol acetate for 3 weeks, followed by pleuritis induction. The results clearly show that administering tocopherol in the course of inflammation causes changes to the distribution and ratio of in the serum protein fractions, including acute phase proteins. The latter proteins are indicative to the improvement in liver function and linked to protein synthesis and stimulation of the antibody-mediated immunity. Moreover, in the course of inflammation caused by exposure of rats to TCDD, tocopherol significantly affected the acute phase protein concentration.

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Synthesis, characterization, and in-vitro antitumor activity of the polyethylene glycol (350 and 1000) succinate derivatives of the tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers of Vitamin E.

Abu-Fayyad A, Nazzal S.

Int J Pharm. 2017 Mar 15;519(1-2):145-156. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.01.020. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Abstract

Vitamin E refers to a group of saturated tocopherol (T) isomers and the biologically more active unsaturated tocotrienol (T3) isomers. PEGylated α-tocopherol, commercially known as Vitamin E TPGS, has been used as an emulsifier and therapeutic agent for children with vitamin E deficiency. Limited information, however, is available about the PEG conjugates of the tocotrienol isomers of vitamin E. The current work was therefore undertaken to synthesize and characterize the water soluble polyethylene glycol (PEG 350 and 1000) derivatives of T and T3. Yield and the identity of the synthesized products were confirmed by 1H NMR, mass spectroscopy, HPLC, and thermal analysis. The self-assembly of the PEGylated vitamin E isomers in water at critical micelle concentrations (CMC) was further confirmed by size, zeta, and Cryo-TEM image analysis. While stable at pH 7.4, PEG conjugates were found to rapidly hydrolyze at pH 1.2. Our data showed that PEGylated T3 isomers were significantly more active as inhibitors for P-glycoprotein than PEGylated T. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the conjugates was also tested against a large panel of normal and tumorigenic cells. Of the conjugates, γ-T3PGS 1000 and δ-T3PGS 1000 were found to have the least toxicity against non-tumorigenic breast and pancreatic cell lines, which may be advantageous for its use as functional excipients in drug delivery. The results from the current work have demonstrated the feasibility of synthesizing PEGylated conjugates of vitamin E isomers and highlighted the potential use of these conjugates in drug delivery as functional and safer excipients especially for γ-T3PGS 1000 and δ-T3PGS 1000 conjugate.

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γ-Tocotrienol Inhibits TGF-β1-Induced Contractile Phenotype Expression of Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells.

Fukushima T, Yamasaki A, Harada T, Chikumi H, Watanabe M, Okazaki R, Takata M, Hasegawa Y, Kurai J, Yanai M, Yamamoto A, Sueda Y, Halayko AJ, Shimizu E.

Yonago Acta Med. 2017 Mar 9;60(1):16-23. eCollection 2017.

Abstract

Tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, exist in four different isoforms (α, β, γ and δ tocotrienol) that have can be protective against brain damage, as well as having anticancer effects in vivo and in vitro. We have shown that γ-tocotrienol inhibits human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB by suppressing RhoA activation. In this study, we tested whether γ-tocotrienol modulates transforming growth factor (TGF) -β-induced induction of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) into a contractile phenotype and concomitant synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. ASM cells were stimulated with TGF-β1 (2 ng/mL) for 48 hours and the effect of γ-tocotrienol (50 μM) on α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin and collagen I expression was assessed using Western blotting. The signaling pathways involved in TGF-β1 stimulation were also investigated. Results show TGF-β1 increased α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin and collagen Ⅰ abundance by 3- to 5-fold. This response was inhibited significantly by γ-tocotrienol. Furthermore, γ-tocotrienol suppressed RhoA activation, but did not affect Smad2 or Smad3 phosphorylation. These results indicate that γ-tocotrienol has potential for benefit in modulating on airway remodeling in asthma, likely via a mechanism involving the suppression of TGF-β activation of RhoA.

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