Effects of Selenium and Vitamin E on Enzymatic, Biochemical, and Immunological Biomarkers in Galleria Mellonella L

Mustafa Coskun, Tamer Kayis, Emre Gulsu, Emel Alp

Sci Rep . 2020 Jun 19;10(1):9953. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-67072-9.

Abstract

To understand the effects of micronutrients have particular biological functions that are involved mainly in the antioxidant system, which has essential implications for the development of diseases, this study investigated how vitamin E, selenium, and their combination affect lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content; antioxidant enzyme (catalase [CAT], superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione-S-transferase [GST]) activity; and the total hemocyte count (THC) in larvae of Galleria mellonella L. fed different diets. Diet 1 (100 µg of selenium) significantly decreased carbohydrate and lipid content. Diets 2 (100 µg of vitamin E), 3 (100 µg of selenium and vitamin E each), and 5 (Tween 80) did not significantly affect protein and carbohydrate content. Diet 2 significantly increased the lipid content compared to diet 4 (control). Diet 1 increased CAT, SOD, and GST activity and MDA content (highest at 27.64 nmol/mg protein). Diet 2 significantly decreased SOD activity and MDA content compared to other diets. Diet 1 significantly decreased the THC compared to other diets. These results suggested that selenium changes oxidative stress parameters, energy reserves, and THC in G. mellonella. These changes could be a physiological adaptation against selenium-induced oxidative stress. Vitamin E could play a protective role in selenium toxicity.

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Effects of Vitamin A and Vitamin E on Attenuation of Amphotericin B-induced Side Effects on Kidney and Liver of Male Wistar Rats

Aref Salehzadeh, Alireza Salehzadeh, Amir-Hossein Maghsood, Shirin Heidarisasan, Masoumeh Taheri-Azandaryan, Abolfazl Ghafourikhosroshahi, Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int . 2020 Jun 8. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-09547-w. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Despite the fact that amphotericin B (AmB) is currently considered as the first choice for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, it is associated with some side effects. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of vitamins A and E against amphotericin B-induced adverse effects in the kidney and liver of rat. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 7-8 weeks and weighing around 200 g were randomly divided into five groups, each one containing six rats. The first to fifth groups received olive oil as the control groups, AmB, AmB + vitamin A, AmB + vitamin E, and AmB + vitamins A + E, respectively. Rats received vitamins by gavage (vitamin A, 1000 IU/kg and vitamin E, 100 IU/kg) and amphotericin B by injections (5.5 mg/kg body weight). The treatment was constantly continued for 5 days and days 7 and 21. At the end of the study, serum level of TAC, TOS, MDA, liver enzyme activity (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH), renal factors (urea, uric acid, and creatinine), lipid profile as well as histopathological changes of the liver and kidney were investigated. AmB significantly increased serum level of creatinine, urea, uric acid, ALP, TOS, MDA, and kidney and renal tissue damage (p < 0.05). Supplementation AmB with vitamins A and E alone or combination improved oxidative stress status, liver and renal tissue structure, and functional parameters and serum lipid profile. This study highlighted the effects of vitamin A and vitamin E on attenuation of amphotericin B-induced side effects on the kidney and liver of male Wistar rats. Combination of the two vitamins is more effective than either alone improving the oxidative stress status, serum lipid profile, or liver and renal tissue structure and functional parameters.

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Sulforaphane and Vitamin E Protect From Glucotoxic Neurodegeneration and Lifespan Reduction In C. Elegans

Andrea Schlotterer, Benan Masri, M Humpert, Bernhard Karl Krämer, Hans-Peter Hammes, Michael Morcos

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes . 2020 Jun 5. doi: 10.1055/a-1158-9248. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Caenorhabditis elegans is an established model organism in neurodegeneration and aging research. Oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), as they occur under hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes mellitus, contribute to neuronal damage and lifespan reduction. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an indirect antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) is a direct antioxidant that acts as a free radical scavenger. Aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of SFN and vitamin E against glucotoxic damages to the neuronal system and lifespan in C. elegans. Culture conditions that mimic clinical hyperglycemia increased the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p<0.001) and the accumulation of methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation endproducts (MG-derived AGEs) (p<0.01) with subsequent neuronal damage and neuronal dysfunction, ultimately leading to a significant shortening of lifespan (p<0.01). Treatment with both, 20 µmol/l SFN and 200 µg/ml vitamin E, completely prevented the increase in ROS and MG-derived AGEs, abolished the glucotoxic effects on neuronal structure and function, and preserved lifespan, resulting in a life expectancy similar to untreated controls. These data emphasize the relevance of indirect and direct antioxidants as potential therapeutic options for the prevention of glucotoxic pathologies.

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Consolidation of vitamin A and E methods onto a multiplexing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry platform simplifies laboratory workflow

Zha L, Law T, MacDonald C, Kodgis I, Kellogg MD, Peake RWA

Clin Chim Acta. 2020 Jun;505:31-33. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2020.02.020. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Vitamin A and E are routinely monitored to assess nutritional status. The most commonly used approach for their measurement involves laborious liquid-liquid extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis on dedicated instrumentation. We describe a simple, rapid protocol for measurement of vitamin A and E and their integration into an existing online sample preparation liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPLC-MS/MS) workflow.

METHODS:

We performed a method comparison between the SPLC-MS/MS and HPLC methods for vitamin A and E by measuring patient specimens across the concentration range 11-81 µg/dL for vitamin A and 1-18 mg/L for vitamin E. The analysis times on each platform were also compared.

RESULTS:

SPLC-MS/MS and HPLC methods were comparable with regards to analytical performance; mean bias across the measured range was 2.54% (95% CL: -11.56-16.64%) for vitamin A and -2.04% (95% CL: -18.20-14.12%) for vitamin E. Total analysis times were 7 min and 15 min for SPLC-MS/MS and HPLC respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

The development of a simplified sample preparation protocol and the use of multiplexing SPLC-MS/MS have reduced sample analysis times for vitamin A and E. This method has also optimized clinical workflow through consolidation of previously independent benches.

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Reduction of Senescence-Associated Beta-Galactosidase Activity by Vitamin E in Human Fibroblasts Depends on Subjects’ Age and Cell Passage Number

Roberta Ricciarelli, Angelo Azzi, Jean-Marc Zingg

Biofactors . 2020 Jun 1. doi: 10.1002/biof.1636. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Cell senescence is due to the permanent cell cycle arrest that occurs as a result of the inherent limited replicative capacity toward the Hayflick limit (replicative senescence), or in response to various stressors (stress-induced premature senescence, SIPS). With the acquisition of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), cells release several molecules (cytokines, proteases, lipids), and express the senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal). Here we tested whether vitamin E affects SA-β-Gal in an in vitro model of cell ageing. Skin fibroblasts from human subjects of different age (1, 13, 29, 59, and 88 years old) were cultured until they reached replicative senescence. At different passages (Passages 2, 9, 13, and 16), these cells were treated with vitamin E for 24 hr. Vitamin E reduced SA-β-Gal in all cells at passage 16, but at earlier passage numbers it reduced SA-β-Gal only in cells isolated from the oldest subjects. Therefore, short time treatment with vitamin E decreases SA-β-Gal in cells both from young and old subjects when reaching replicative senescence; but in cells isolated from older subjects, a decrease in SA-β-Gal by vitamin E occurs also at earlier passage numbers. The possible role of downregulation of CD36 by vitamin E, a scavenger receptor essential for initiation of senescence and SASP, is discussed.

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Vitamin E – Phosphatidylethanolamine Interactions in Mixed Membranes With Sphingomyelin: Studies by 2 H NMR

Andres T Cavazos, Jacob J Kinnun, Justin A Williams, Stephen R Wassall

Chem Phys Lipids . 2020 May 31;104910. doi: 10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2020.104910. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Among the structurally diverse collection of lipids that comprise the membrane lipidome, polyunsaturated phospholipids are particularly vulnerable to oxidation. The role of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) is to protect this influential class of membrane phospholipid from oxidative damage. Whether lipid-lipid interactions play a role in supporting this function is an unanswered question. Here, we compare the molecular organization of polyunsaturated 1-[2H31]palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PDPE-d31) and, as a control, monounsaturated 1-[2H31]palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (POPE-d31) mixed with sphingomyelin (SM) and α-tocopherol (α-toc) (2:2:1 mol) by solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy. In both cases the effect of α-tocopherol appears similar. Spectral moments reveal that the main chain melting transition of POPE-d31 and PDPE-d31 is broadened beyond detection. A spectral component attributed to the formation of inverted hexagonal HII phase in coexistence with lamellar Lα phase by POPE-d31 (20 %) and PDPE-d31 (18 %) is resolved following the addition of α-toc. Order parameters in the remaining Lα phase are increased slightly more for POPE-d31 (7%) than PDPE-d31 (4%). Preferential interaction with polyunsaturated phospholipid is not apparent in these results. The propensity for α-toc to form phase structure with negative curvature that is more tightly packed at the membrane surface, nevertheless, may restrict the contact of free radicals with lipid chains on phosphatidylethanolamine molecules that accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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Vitamin E-Bonded Membranes Do Not Influence Markers of Oxidative Stress in Hemodialysis Patients With Homozygous Glutathione Transferase M1 Gene Deletion

Petar Djuric, Sonja Suvakov, Tatjana Simic, Dragana Markovic, Djurdja Jerotic, Aleksandar Jankovic 1, Ana Bulatovic, Jelena Tosic Dragovic, Tatjana Damjanovic, Jelena Marinkovic, Radomir Naumovic, Nada Dimkovic

Toxins (Basel) . 2020 May 27;12(6):E352. doi: 10.3390/toxins12060352.

Abstract

Background: Increased oxidative stress is a hallmark of end-stage renal disease. Hemodialysis (HD) patients lacking glutathione transferase M1 (GSTM1) enzyme activity exhibit enhanced oxidative DNA damage and higher mortality rate than those with active GSTM1 enzyme. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use the vitamin E-bonded membranes (VEM) in patients with homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion, and we aimed to determine the effect of VEM on oxidative and inflammatory status in HD patients with homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion.

Methods: GSTM1 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 170 chronic HD patients. Those with GSTM1-null genotype were randomized and 80 were included in the study. Forty of them were dialyzed for three months with VEM, while the other forty were dialyzed with high-flux same-surface polysulfone dialyzers. Markers of protein and lipid oxidative damage and inflammation (thiol groups, malondialdehyde (MDA), Interleukin-6 (IL-6)), together with plasma antioxidant activity (glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were determined.

Results: Seventy-five patients finished the study. There were no differences at baseline in markers of protein and lipid oxidative damage, inflammation and plasma antioxidant activity. After three months of therapy, GPX, MDA, and thiol groups increased significantly in both groups, but without statistical significance between groups. SOD and C reactive protein (CRP) did not change significantly during the three-month period. IL-6 increased in the control group, and at the same time, decreased in the VEM group, but without statistical significance. Hemoglobin (Hb) value, red blood cells, erythropoiesis resistance index (ERI), serum ferritin and iron did not change significantly within or between groups. Regarding other laboratory parameters, proteins, albumins, triglycerides, serum phosphorus, serum bicarbonate and Kt/V showed significant improvements within groups but with no significant difference between groups.

Conclusions: Our data shows that therapy with VEM over three months had no benefit over standard polysulfone membrane in decreasing by-products of oxidative stress and inflammation in dialysis patients lacking GSTM1 enzyme activity.

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Effects of Coadministration of DHA and Vitamin E on Spermatogram, Seminal Oxidative Stress, and Sperm Phospholipids in Asthenozoospermic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Ghazaleh Eslamian, Naser Amirjannati, Nazanin Noori, Mohammad-Reza Sadeghi, Azita Hekmatdoost

Am J Clin Nutr . 2020 May 26;nqaa124. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa124. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: It is unknown which compounds in spermatozoa or seminal plasma may be involved in the regulation of sperm motility.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DHA (22:6n-3), vitamin E, and their probable interactions in men with asthenozoospermia.

Methods: A factorial, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in infertility clinics in Tehran, Iran. The participants were idiopathic asthenozoospermic men aged 20-45 y, with normal endocrine function. Their concentration of spermatozoa and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa were equal to or above the lower reference limits, according to the fifth edition of the WHO guideline. Out of 717 men referred to the infertility clinics, 180 asthenozoospermic men were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups according to stratified blocked randomization by age and sperm concentration. Participants took daily 465 mg DHA plus 600 IU vitamin E (DE), 465 mg DHA plus placebo (DP), 600 IU vitamin E plus placebo (EP), or both placebo capsules (PP) for 12 wk. Sperm characteristics, oxidative stress of seminal plasma, serum and sperm membrane fatty acids, dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 12 wk.

Results: After the intervention, mean ± SD sperm progressive motility was greater in the DE group (27.9 ± 2.8) than in the DP (25.7 ± 3.4), EP (26.1 ± 2.8), and PP (25.8 ± 2.6) groups (P < 0.05). Sperm count (P = 0.001) and concentration (P = 0.044) increased significantly in the DE group compared with the other 3 groups, whereas other semen parameters were not significantly different between the groups after the intervention. Serum concentrations of n-3 PUFAs were significantly higher in the DE and DP groups than in the EP and PP groups.

Conclusions: Combined DHA and vitamin E supplements led to increased sperm motility; however, no significant changes occurred in sperm morphology and vitality in asthenozoospermic men.

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Targeted Nutritional Intervention for Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Cognitive impAiRmEnt Study (CARES) Trial 1

Rebecca Power, John M Nolan, Alfonso Prado-Cabrero, Robert Coen, Warren Roche, Tommy Power, Alan N Howard, Ríona Mulcahy

J Pers Med . 2020 May 25;10(2):E43. doi: 10.3390/jpm10020043.

Abstract

Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3FAs), carotenoids, and vitamin E are important constituents of a healthy diet. While they are present in brain tissue, studies have shown that these key nutrients are depleted in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in comparison to cognitively healthy individuals. Therefore, it is likely that these individuals will benefit from targeted nutritional intervention, given that poor nutrition is one of the many modifiable risk factors for MCI. Evidence to date suggests that these nutritional compounds can work independently to optimize the neurocognitive environment, primarily due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To date, however, no interventional studies have examined the potential synergistic effects of a combination of ω-3FAs, carotenoids and vitamin E on the cognitive function of patients with MCI. Individuals with clinically confirmed MCI consumed an ω-3FA plus carotenoid plus vitamin E formulation or placebo for 12 months. Cognitive performance was determined from tasks that assessed global cognition and episodic memory. Ω-3FAs, carotenoids, and vitamin E were measured in blood. Carotenoid concentrations were also measured in tissue (skin and retina). Individuals consuming the active intervention (n = 6; median [IQR] age 73.5 [69.5-80.5] years; 50% female) exhibited statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05, for all) in tissue carotenoid concentrations, and carotenoid and ω-3FA concentrations in blood. Trends in improvements in episodic memory and global cognition were also observed in this group. In contrast, the placebo group (n = 7; median [IQR] 72 (69.5-75.5) years; 89% female) remained unchanged or worsened for all measurements (p > 0.05). Despite a small sample size, this exploratory study is the first of its kind to identify trends in improved cognitive performance in individuals with MCI following supplementation with ω-3FAs, carotenoids, and vitamin E.

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Effect of Anoectochilus roxburghii flavonoids extract on H2O2 – Induced oxidative stress in LO2 cells and D-gal induced aging mice model

Wang L, Chen Q, Zhuang S, Wen Y, Cheng W, Zeng Z, Jiang T, Tang C

J Ethnopharmacol. 2020 May 23;254:112670. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.112670. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Anoectochilus roxburghii (A. roxburghii) is a popular folk medicine in many Asian countries, which has been used traditionally for treatment of some diseases such as diabetes, tumors, hyperlipemia, and hepatitis. The ethanol extract from A. roxburghii was recently shown to exert better ability to scavenge free radicals in vitro and possess antioxidant on natural aging mice in vivo.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

This study is to characterize the chemical composition, and investigate the protective effect of the A. roxburghii flavonoids extract (ARF) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in LO2 cells in vitro and D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging mice model in vivo, and explore the underlying mechanisms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The chemical components of the flavonoids extract fromA. roxburghii were detected by ultraperformance lipid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS). H2O2 was used to establish an oxidative stress model in LO2 cells. Cytotoxic and protective effects of ARF on the LO2 cells were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Moreover, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in cell supernatants were measured by commercial reagent kits. Kun-Ming mice were induced to aging with D-gal (400 mg/kg, BW) by subcutaneous injection for 58 days. From the 28th day to the 58th day of D-gal treatment, ARF (122.5, 245 and 490 mg/kg, BW) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, BW) were orally administrated to aging mice once a day for consecutive 30 days. After 25 days of the treatment with ARF, learning and memory were assessed using Morris Water Maze (MWM). At the end of the test period, the animals were euthanized by cervical dislocation, and the levels of SOD, GSH-PX, and MDA in serum, liver homogenates and brain homogenates were measured. The levels of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) were determined in brain homogenates. Skin and liver histopathological morphology were observed by H&E staining. Furthermore, antioxidant-related gene expression levels in the liver were carried out by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).

RESULTS:

Nine flavonoids were identified in the extracts of A. roxburghii. In vitro assay, a high concentration of ARF (>612.5 μg/ml) reduced the survival rate and had toxic effects on LO2 cells. In addition, ARF (245 μg/ml, 490 μg/ml) and Vitamin C (200 μg/ml) markedly inhibited generations of MDA and increased activities of SOD, GSH-PX in H2O2-induced LO2 cells supernatants. In vivo assay, ARF (122.5 mg/kg, 245 mg/kg and 490 mg/kg) and Vitamin E (100 mg/kg) not only ameliorated learning and memory ability but also improved skin and liver pathological alterations. Strikingly, ARF significantly decreased MDA and MAO levels, markedly enhanced antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GSH-PX) activities. Further, compared to the D-gal group, ARF could obviously up-regulate glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) and glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPx-4) mRNA levels.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggested that ARF protects LO2 cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and exerts the potent anti-aging effects in D-gal aging mice model, which may be related to the inhibition of oxidative stress. Flavonoid compounds may contribute to the anti-oxidative capability and modulating aging.

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