Finding of Remarkable Synergistic Effect on the Aroxyl-Radical-Scavenging Rates (k s) under the Coexistence of Vitamin E Homologues (or Vegetable Oils) and Ubiquinol-10: Proposal of A New Mechanism to Explain An Increase of k s Value

Kazuo Mukai, Yasuhiro Maruoka, Saya Kitagaki, Shin-Ichi Nagaoka

J Oleo Sci . 2020 Sep 10. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess20091. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Measurements of aroxyl (ArO・)-radical-scavenging rate constants (ksAOH) of antioxidants (AOHs) (i.e., α-, β-, γ-, δ-Tocopherol (TocH) and ubiquinol-10 (UQ10H2)) were performed in ethanol/chloroform/H2O (50/50/1, v/v) solution, using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. ksAOH values were measured not only for each AOH, but also for the mixtures of two AOHs (i.e., TocH and UQ10H2). ksTocH values for α-, β-, γ-, δ-TocH increased 1.21, 1.28, 1.55, and 1.19 times, respectively, under the coexistence of constant concentrations of UQ10H2. Similar measurements were performed for eight vegetable oils 1 – 8, containing different concentrations of α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherol (TocH) and -tocotrienol (Toc-3H). ksOil values of all eight vegetable oils 1 – 8 also increased 1.24 – 1.54 times under the coexistence of constant concentrations of UQ10H2. A new mechanism to explain the notable increase of ksAOH values under the coexistence of two kinds of phenolic AOHs was proposed. UV-vis absorption of α-, β-, γ-Toc · radicals, produced by reaction of α-, β-, γ-TocHs (or vegetable oils 1 – 8) with ArO ·, disappeared under the coexistence of TocHs (or oils) and UQ10H2, suggesting that the prooxidant reaction resulting from the presence of Toc · radicals is suppressed in the presence of UQ10H2.

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Tocopherol Moderately Induces the Expressions of Some Human Sulfotransferases, which are Activated by Oxidative Stress

Sangita MaitiDutta, Guangping Chen, Smarajit Maiti

Cell Biochem Biophys . 2020 Sep 8. doi: 10.1007/s12013-020-00938-x. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Oxidative stress is generated in biological system by several endogenous/exogenous factors like environmental-pollution/toxicity/diseases and by daily-life-stress. We previously showed that oxidative-stress impaired the activities/expressions of phase-II drug-metabolizing enzyme, sulfotransferases (SULTs). The SULT catalyzes sulfation of endogenous/exogenous compounds. Vitamin E is globally consumed by a large number of individuals for the cellular protection from oxidative stress and aging. Here, vitamin E (tocopherol; α/γ and tocotrienol; α/γ; 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM) was tested in human carcinoma cell line, HepG2 for their influences on SULTs expression/(western blotting). The effects of oxidant (glutathione-oxidized/GSSG) or reductant (glutathione-reduced/GSH, Dithiothreitol/DTT) on SULT activities were studied in rat-liver/human intestinal tissues. Results suggest, tocopherol is more inductive to monoamine-SULT (MPST) and Dehydroepiandrosterone-SULT (DHEAST) compared to that of tocotrienol (inconsistent change in PPST, phenol sulfotransferase/MPST/EST, estrogen sulfotransferase). The nuclear-factor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) was found to be induced moderately. This study overall describes that vitamin E moderately influences SULTs expression. The induction ability of tocopherol should be judged taking into account its long-term consummation. Oxidative stress activates rat and human SULTs activities and expressions. Further studies are necessary in this regard.

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Effect of encapsulated vitamin E on physical, storage and retention parameters in cookies

Kamaljit Kaur, Jasdeep Singh, Vipandeep Singh

J Food Sci Technol . 2020 Sep;57(9):3509-3517. doi: 10.1007/s13197-020-04386-6. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Abstract

Microencapsulated α-tocopherol and wheat germ oil (WGO) were incorporated as WGO (5.0 ml) in liquid: WGO-L, encapsulated: WGO-E, encapsulated α-tocopherol as E1, E2 and E3 at 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 g respectively in cookies and evaluated for physical, sensory and shelf life parameters. Spread ratio was decreased, whereas hardness was increased with encapsulated formulations and observed least in WGO-L (40.52 N) formulated cookies. During storage moisture content was observed increased (2.51-4.78%), vitamin E was retained in all formulations except WGO-L and was found maximum in E3 (4.45 mg/100 g) formulated cookies. Formulations brought the peroxide value to nil, free fatty acid development was very less, better antioxidant activity (41.1% maximum), total plate count was observed least in E3 (25 × 102 cfu/g) and good sensory acceptance of cookies up to 4 months of storage. The study concluded that encapsulated vitamin E elevated the antioxidant activity and consequently shelf life and nutritive value of cookies.

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Multifunctional activity of vitamin E in animal and animal products: A review

Emrobowansan M Idamokoro, Andrew B Falowo, Chika E Oyeagu, Anthony J Afolayan

Anim Sci J . Jan-Dec 2020;91(1):e13352. doi: 10.1111/asj.13352.

Abstract

Vitamin E is an essential nontoxic fat-soluble micronutrient whose effects on livestock performance and products can be attributed to its antioxidant and nonantioxidant properties. Although it is needed in small quantity in the diet, its roles in livestock production are indispensable as it is required in boosting performance, nutritional qualities, and yield of animal and animal products. The dietary or oral supplementation of vitamin E is essential in reducing lipid oxidation in muscle, egg, and dairy products as well as lowering cholesterol concentrations and improving antioxidant status of livestock. Evidence has shown that bioavailability of vitamin E-enriched animal products could serve as an invaluable nutritional benefit to consumers; especially those in regions of limited resources where vitamin E deficiencies pose a risk that may be detrimental to some cellular activities of the body and on human health. It is therefore important to redirect research on the impact of vitamin E supplementation as antioxidant on livestock performance and animal products.

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Antioxidant Effect Of Vitamin E On Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Tubulointerstitial And Glomerular Damage In The Kidneys Of Albino Mice

Shabnum Aamir, Zia Ud Din, Zahid Sarfaraz Khan, Humaira Imtiaz, Faheem Ul Haq, Hajira Ishaq

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad . Jul-Sep 2020;32(3):295-298.

Abstract

Background: Chemical induced nephrotoxicity is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant effect of vitamin E against carbon tetrachloride induced tubulointerstitial and glomerular damage in the kidney of albino mice.

Methods: The study had been conducted on albino mice. The duration of study was for five weeks. A total of 35 animals were randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E .The group A served as control group, group B was administered only with carbon tetrachloride (no vitamin E) and groups C, D and E received test drug (vitamin E) in doses of 1, 10 and 50mg/kg body weight respectively along with CCl4. The animals were dissected and kidneys were excised for microscopic study for possible histo-morphological effects.

Results: It was observed that carbon tetrachloride treated experimental groups developed tubulo-interstitial and glomerular changes as compared to control group A. The results suggested that these changes were significantly reduced in vitamin E treated groups especially in dose of 50 mg/kg body weight.

Conclusions: This study reveals that tubulointerstitial and glomerular damage caused by carbon tetrachloride can be reduced by vitamin E in dose of 50 mg/kg body weight.

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The wonders of palm oil

Ahmad Parveez Ghulam Kadir

The Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)’s research and collaborations with local and overseas institutions have scientifically proven that palm-derived Vitamin E tocotrienols are important for human health as they can prevent many non-communicable diseases. Through the continuous and dedicated research conducted by MPOB, the health benefits of palm oil and its phyto-nutrients are being explored extensively.

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Effects of α-tocopherol on hemolysis and oxidative stress markers on red blood cells in β-thalassemia major

Nora Sovira, Munar Lubis, Pustika Amalia Wahidiyat, Franciscus D Suyatna, Djajadiman Gatot, Saptawati Bardosono, Mohammad Sadikin

Clin Exp Pediatr . 2020 Aug;63(8):314-320. doi: 10.3345/cep.2019.00542. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Abstract

Background: The accumulation of unpaired α-globin chains in patients with β-thalassemia major may clinically create ineffective erythropoiesis, hemolysis, and chronic anemia. Multiple blood transfusions and iron overload cause cellular oxidative damage. However, α-tocopherol, an antioxidant, is a potent scavenger of lipid radicals in the membranes of red blood cells (RBCs) of patients with β-thalassemia major.

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of α-tocopherol on hemolysis and oxidative stress markers on the RBC membranes of patients with β-thalassemia major.

Methods: Forty subjects included in this randomized controlled trial were allocated to the placebo and α-tocopherol groups. Doses of α-tocopherol were based on Institute of Medicine recommendations: 4-8 years old, 200 mg/day; 9-13 years old, 400 mg/day; 14-18 years old, 600 mg/day. Hemolysis, oxidative stress, and antioxidant variables were evaluated before and after 4-week α-tocopherol or placebo treatment, performed before blood transfusions.

Results: Significant enhancements in plasma haptoglobin were noted in the α-tocopherol group (3.01 mg/dL; range, 0.60-42.42 mg/dL; P=0.021). However, there was no significant intergroup difference in osmotic fragility test results; hemopexin, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), or oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels; or GSH/GSSG ratio.

Conclusion: Use of α-tocopherol could indirectly improve hemolysis and haptoglobin levels. However, it played no significant role in oxidative stress or as an endogen antioxidant marker in β-thalassemia major.

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The Effects of Broiler Breeder Dietary Vitamin E and Egg Storage Time on the Quality of Eggs and Newly Hatched Chicks

Jun Yang, Xuemei Ding, Shiping Bai, Jianping Wang, Qiufeng Zeng, Huanwei Peng, Yue Xuan, Zuowei Su, Keying Zhang

Animals (Basel) . 2020 Aug 13;10(8):E1409. doi: 10.3390/ani10081409.

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of broiler breeder dietary vitamin E and egg storage time on the egg characteristics, hatchability, and antioxidant status of the egg yolks and newly hatched chicks. A total of 512 71-week-old Ross 308 breeder hens were fed the same basic diets containing 6 or 100 mg/kg vitamin E for 12 weeks. During this time, a total of 1532, 1464, and 1316 eggs were independently collected at weeks 8, 10, and 12, respectively, and subsequently stored for 0 or 14 d before hatching. The outcomes from three trials showed that prolonged egg storage time (14 vs. 0 d) negatively affected (p < 0.05) the egg characteristics, hatchability traits, and the yolk total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (p < 0.05). Chicks derived from the stored eggs exhibited higher malonaldehyde (MDA) and T-AOC in the serum and yolk sac (p < 0.05). Broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the hatchability and the antioxidant status of the yolks as indicated by a higher α-tocopherol content and T-AOC and lower MDA level (p < 0.05). The supplementation of vitamin E also remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity (yolk sac, weeks 8 and 12) and T-AOC (serum, weeks 8, 10, and 12; yolk sac, weeks 8 and 12) and decreased (p < 0.05) the MDA content of chicks (yolk sac, week 10; serum, week 12). Interactions (p < 0.05) were found between the broiler breeder dietary vitamin E and egg storage time on the hatchability and antioxidant status of chick tissues. Broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the hatchability and the T-AOC in the serum and liver of chicks, and decreased (p < 0.05) the early embryonic mortality and the MDA content in the yolk sacs of chicks derived from eggs stored for 14 d but not for 0 d. In conclusion, prolonged egg storage time (14 vs. 0 d) increased the embryonic mortality, decreased the hatchability, and impaired the antioxidant status of egg yolks and newly hatched chicks, while the addition of broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) could partly relieve these adverse impacts induced by long-term egg storage.

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Form of Vitamin E Supplementation Affects Oxidative and Inflammatory Response in Exercising Horses

Madison M Fagan, Patricia Harris, Amanda Adams, Robert Pazdro, Amber Krotky, Jarrod Call, Kylee J Duberstein

J Equine Vet Sci . 2020 Aug;91:103103. doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103103. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Abstract

Vitamin E is an essential antioxidant that may benefit athletes by reducing oxidative stress and influencing cytokine expression. Supplements can be derived from natural or manufactured synthetic sources. This study aimed to determine (1) if supplemental vitamin E is beneficial to exercising horses and (2) if there is a benefit of natural versus synthetic vitamin E. After 2 weeks on the control diet (vitamin E-deficient grain and hay), 18 horses were divided into three groups and fed the control diet plus (1) 1000 IU/d synthetic α-tocopherol (SYN-L), (2) 4000 IU/d synthetic α-tocopherol (SYN-H), or (3) 4000 IU/d RRR-α-tocopherol (natural source [NAT]). On day 7, horses began a 6-week training protocol, with standard exercise tests (SETs) performed before and after the 6-week protocol. Venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 29, and 49. Horses fed NAT had higher α-tocopherol (P < .05) at post-SET1 through post-SET2. Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels were lower in NAT versus SYN-L horses after SET2 (P = .02). Serum aspartate aminotransferase was lower after exercise in NAT horses versus SYN-L and SYN-H (P = .02), and less reduction in stride duration was seen after exercise in NAT as compared with SYN-L and SYN-H (P = .02). Gene expression of tumor necrosis factor α was lower in NAT compared with SYN-H (P = .01) but not SYN-L. In conclusion, feeding higher levels of natural vitamin E source resulted in higher serum α-tocopherol levels as well as some improvement in oxidative and inflammatory response and improved functional outcomes in response to an exercise test.

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Form of Vitamin E Supplementation Affects Oxidative and Inflammatory Response in Exercising Horses

Madison M Fagan, Patricia Harris, Amanda Adams, Robert Pazdro, Amber Krotky, Jarrod Call, Kylee J Duberstein

J Equine Vet Sci . 2020 Aug;91:103103. doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103103. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Abstract

Vitamin E is an essential antioxidant that may benefit athletes by reducing oxidative stress and influencing cytokine expression. Supplements can be derived from natural or manufactured synthetic sources. This study aimed to determine (1) if supplemental vitamin E is beneficial to exercising horses and (2) if there is a benefit of natural versus synthetic vitamin E. After 2 weeks on the control diet (vitamin E-deficient grain and hay), 18 horses were divided into three groups and fed the control diet plus (1) 1000 IU/d synthetic α-tocopherol (SYN-L), (2) 4000 IU/d synthetic α-tocopherol (SYN-H), or (3) 4000 IU/d RRR-α-tocopherol (natural source [NAT]). On day 7, horses began a 6-week training protocol, with standard exercise tests (SETs) performed before and after the 6-week protocol. Venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 29, and 49. Horses fed NAT had higher α-tocopherol (P < .05) at post-SET1 through post-SET2. Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels were lower in NAT versus SYN-L horses after SET2 (P = .02). Serum aspartate aminotransferase was lower after exercise in NAT horses versus SYN-L and SYN-H (P = .02), and less reduction in stride duration was seen after exercise in NAT as compared with SYN-L and SYN-H (P = .02). Gene expression of tumor necrosis factor α was lower in NAT compared with SYN-H (P = .01) but not SYN-L. In conclusion, feeding higher levels of natural vitamin E source resulted in higher serum α-tocopherol levels as well as some improvement in oxidative and inflammatory response and improved functional outcomes in response to an exercise test.

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