Sulforaphane and Vitamin E Protect From Glucotoxic Neurodegeneration and Lifespan Reduction In C. Elegans

Andrea Schlotterer, Benan Masri, M Humpert, Bernhard Karl Krämer, Hans-Peter Hammes, Michael Morcos

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes . 2020 Jun 5. doi: 10.1055/a-1158-9248. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Caenorhabditis elegans is an established model organism in neurodegeneration and aging research. Oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), as they occur under hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes mellitus, contribute to neuronal damage and lifespan reduction. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an indirect antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) is a direct antioxidant that acts as a free radical scavenger. Aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of SFN and vitamin E against glucotoxic damages to the neuronal system and lifespan in C. elegans. Culture conditions that mimic clinical hyperglycemia increased the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p<0.001) and the accumulation of methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation endproducts (MG-derived AGEs) (p<0.01) with subsequent neuronal damage and neuronal dysfunction, ultimately leading to a significant shortening of lifespan (p<0.01). Treatment with both, 20 µmol/l SFN and 200 µg/ml vitamin E, completely prevented the increase in ROS and MG-derived AGEs, abolished the glucotoxic effects on neuronal structure and function, and preserved lifespan, resulting in a life expectancy similar to untreated controls. These data emphasize the relevance of indirect and direct antioxidants as potential therapeutic options for the prevention of glucotoxic pathologies.

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Comparative Effects of Alpha- And Gamma-Tocopherol on Mitochondrial Functions in Alzheimer’s Disease In Vitro Model

Aslina Pahrudin Arrozi, Siti Nur Syazwani Shukri, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, Mohd Hanafi Ahmad Damanhuri, Faizul Jaafar, Suzana Makpol

Sci Rep . 2020 Jun 2;10(1):8962. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-65570-4.

Abstract

Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant and reduces the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Alpha-tocopherol (ATF) is the most widely studied form of vitamin E besides gamma-tocopherol (GTF) which also shows beneficial effects in AD. The levels of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) increased in the brains of AD patients, and mutations in the APP gene are known to enhance the production of Aβ. Mitochondrial function was shown to be affected by the increased level of Aβ and may induce cell death. Here, we aimed to compare the effects of ATF and GTF on their ability to reduce Aβ level, modulate mitochondrial function and reduce the apoptosis marker in SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with the wild-type or mutant form of the APP gene. The Aβ level was measured by ELISA, the mitochondrial ROS and ATP level were quantified by fluorescence and luciferase assay respectively whereas the complex V enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometry. The expressions of genes involved in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability such as voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC1), adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), and cyclophilin D (CYPD) were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), while the expressions of cyclophilin D (CypD), cytochrome c, Bcl2 associated X (BAX), B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), and pro-caspase-3 were determined by western blot. Our results showed that mitochondrial ROS level was elevated accompanied by decreased ATP level and complex V enzyme activity in SH-SY5Y cells expressing the mutant APP gene (p < 0.05). Treatment with both ATF and GTF reduced the mitochondrial ROS level with maximum reduction was observed in the cells treated with high concentrations of ATF and GTF (p < 0.05). However, only GTF at 80 µM significantly increase the ATP level and complex V enzyme activity (p < 0.05). VDAC1 and CYPD were downregulated and CypD protein was significantly overexpressed in cells transfected with the wild-type (WT) and mutant APP gene (p < 0.05). Cytochrome c release, the ratio of BAX/Bcl-2, and pro-caspase-3 expression increased in cells expressing mutated APP gene (p < 0.05). The expression of CypD and pro-caspase 3 protein, and the ratio of BAX/Bcl-2 were increased in the following order; SH-SY5Y-APP-WT < SH-SY5Y-APP Swe <SH-SY5Y-APP Swe/Ind. Treatment with both ATF and GTF reduced the release of cytochrome c and the ratio of BAX/Bcl-2. However, only GTF significantly reduced the expression of CypD and pro-caspase-3, suggestive of its unique role in AD. In conclusion, GTF has an effect that was not shown by ATF and thus suggest its potential role in the development of therapeutic agents for AD.

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Increased Anxiety-Like Behavior Is an Early Symptom of Vitamin E Deficiency That Is Suppressed by Adrenalectomy in Rats

Yuki Terada, Hiroya Ohashi, Yuki Otani, Kanako Tokunaga, Asako Takenaka

Br J Nutr . 2020 Jun 1;1-27. doi: 10.1017/S0007114520001889. Online ahead of print

Abstract

We previously reported that dietary vitamin E deficiency increased anxiety-like behavior in rats exposed to social isolation. Here, we performed a detailed investigation of this phenomenon and its underlying mechanism. First, we fed Wistar rats with vitamin E-free diet for 3 days, 1 week, or 2 weeks and found an increase in anxiety-like behavior after 1 and 2 weeks of vitamin E deficiency based on behavioral indicators. Next, we examined the effect of a control diet (150 mg all-racemic α-tocopherol acetate/kg) on anxiety-like behaviors in rats that received a 4- week vitamin E-free diet. We found that increased anxiety-like behavior was reversed to control levels after refeeding vitamin E for 7 days but not for 1 or 3 days. Further, anxiety-like behavior increased or decreased gradually based on the amount of vitamin E intake; however, it had a quicker progression than physical symptoms of vitamin E deficiency. Moreover, rats fed with excess vitamin E (500 mg all-racemic α-tocopherol/kg diet) showed less anxiety-like behavior than control rats, indicating that vitamin E supplementation is effective for preventing anxiety increase under social isolation stress. Since plasma corticosterone levels were higher in vitamin E deficient rats, we investigated the effect of adrenalectomy on anxiety-like behavior and found that adrenal hormones played an essential role in the increased anxiety-like behavior induced by vitamin E deficiency. In conclusion, increased anxiety-like behavior is a symptom that emerges earlier than physical vitamin E deficiency and is caused by adrenal hormone-dependent mechanisms.

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Targeted Nutritional Intervention for Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Cognitive impAiRmEnt Study (CARES) Trial 1

Rebecca Power, John M Nolan, Alfonso Prado-Cabrero, Robert Coen, Warren Roche, Tommy Power, Alan N Howard, Ríona Mulcahy

J Pers Med . 2020 May 25;10(2):E43. doi: 10.3390/jpm10020043.

Abstract

Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3FAs), carotenoids, and vitamin E are important constituents of a healthy diet. While they are present in brain tissue, studies have shown that these key nutrients are depleted in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in comparison to cognitively healthy individuals. Therefore, it is likely that these individuals will benefit from targeted nutritional intervention, given that poor nutrition is one of the many modifiable risk factors for MCI. Evidence to date suggests that these nutritional compounds can work independently to optimize the neurocognitive environment, primarily due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To date, however, no interventional studies have examined the potential synergistic effects of a combination of ω-3FAs, carotenoids and vitamin E on the cognitive function of patients with MCI. Individuals with clinically confirmed MCI consumed an ω-3FA plus carotenoid plus vitamin E formulation or placebo for 12 months. Cognitive performance was determined from tasks that assessed global cognition and episodic memory. Ω-3FAs, carotenoids, and vitamin E were measured in blood. Carotenoid concentrations were also measured in tissue (skin and retina). Individuals consuming the active intervention (n = 6; median [IQR] age 73.5 [69.5-80.5] years; 50% female) exhibited statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05, for all) in tissue carotenoid concentrations, and carotenoid and ω-3FA concentrations in blood. Trends in improvements in episodic memory and global cognition were also observed in this group. In contrast, the placebo group (n = 7; median [IQR] 72 (69.5-75.5) years; 89% female) remained unchanged or worsened for all measurements (p > 0.05). Despite a small sample size, this exploratory study is the first of its kind to identify trends in improved cognitive performance in individuals with MCI following supplementation with ω-3FAs, carotenoids, and vitamin E.

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Vitamin E Effects on Developmental Disorders in Fetuses and Cognitive Dysfunction in Adults Following Acrylamide Treatment During Pregnancy

Zeynep Erdemli, Mehmet Erman Erdemli, Yusuf Turkoz, Birgul Yigitcan, Mehmet Arif Aladag, Yilmaz Cigremis, Rumeyza Hilal Cırık, Eyup Altinoz, Harika Gozukara Bag

Biotech Histochem . 2020 Apr 29;1-9. doi: 10.1080/10520295.2020.1751880.

Abstract

We investigated the effects of acrylamide (AA) and vitamin E treatment during pregnancy on brain tissues of fetuses and on adult rats. Pregnant rats were divided into five groups: control, corn oil, vitamin E, AA, vitamin E +AA. The rats administered AA received10 mg/kg/day and those administered vitamin E received 100 mg/kg/day both by via oral gavage for 20 days. On day 20 of pregnancy, half of the pregnant rats were removed by cesarean section in each group. Morphological development parameters were measured in each fetus and histopathological, biochemical and genetic analyses were conducted on the fetuses. The remaining pregnant rats in each group gave birth to the fetuses vaginally and biochemical, histopathological, genetic and cognitive function tests were conducted when the pups were 8 weeks old. AA administration caused adverse effects on fetus number, fetal weight, crown-rump length, placenta and brain weight. AA negatively affected malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, total oxidant and antioxidant status, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, brain tissue morphology, histopathology error score and gene expression (BDNF/β-actin mRNA ratio) in fetuses. AA administration caused disruption of biochemical, histopathological and cognitive functions in adult rats. Vitamin E provided protection against neurotoxicity in both fetuses and adult rats. We conclude that exposure to AA during pregnancy should be avoided and adequate amounts of antioxidants, such as vitamin E, should be consumed.

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Trace elements homeostasis in brain exposed to 900 MHz RFW emitted from a BTS-antenna model and the protective role of vitamin E

Azimzadeh M, Jelodar G

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2020 Apr 12. doi: 10.1111/jpn.13360. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Advances in telecommunication and their broad usage in the community have become a great concern from the health aspect. The object of the present study was to examine the effects of exposure to 900 MHz RFW on brain Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Manganese (Mn) concentration, and the protective role of pre-treatment of vitamin E on mentioned elements homoeostasis. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 ± 20 g) randomly were divided into four groups. Control group (without any exposure, received distilled water), treatment control group (orally received 250 mg/kg BW/d vitamin E), treatment group (received 250 mg/kg BW/d vitamin E and exposed to 900 MHz RFW) and sham-exposed group (exposed to 900 MHz RFW). Animals (with freely moving in the cage) were exposed to RFW for 30 consecutive days (4 hr/day). The levels of the above mentioned elements in the brain tissue were determined on the last day using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Exposure to 900 MHz RFW induced a significant increase in the Fe, Cu, Mn levels and Cu/Zn ratio accompanied by a significant decrease in Zn level in the sham-exposed group compare to control group. Vitamin E pre-treatment improved the level of Fe, Cu, Mn and Cu/Zn ratio, except in the Zn concentration. Exposure to 900 MHz RFW caused disrupted trace elements homoeostasis in the brain tissue and administration of vitamin E as an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent improved the situation.

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Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer’s Disease by Novel Antioxidative Supplements

Tadokoro K, Ohta Y, Inufusa H, Loon AFN, Abe K

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Mar 13;21(6). pii: E1974. doi: 10.3390/ijms21061974.

Abstract

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from its prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment. There is an interplay between oxidative stress and the amyloid β (Aβ) cascade via various mechanisms including mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, glycoxidation, deoxyribonucleotide acid damage, altered antioxidant defense, impaired amyloid clearance, inflammation and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Based on findings that indicate that oxidative stress plays a major role in AD, oxidative stress has been considered as a therapeutic target of AD. In spite of favorable preclinical study outcomes, previous antioxidative components, including a single antioxidative supplement such as vitamin C, vitamin E or their mixtures, did not clearly show any therapeutic effect on cognitive decline in AD. However, novel antioxidative supplements can be beneficial for AD patients. In this review, we summarize the interplay between oxidative stress and the Aβ cascade, and introduce novel antioxidative supplements expected to prevent cognitive decline in AD.

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Association of Circulating Retinol and α-TOH Levels with Cognitive Function in Aging Subject with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Huang X, Guo Y, Li P, Ma X, Dong S, Hu H, Li Y, Yuan L.

J Nutr Health Aging. 2020;24(3):290-299. doi: 10.1007/s12603-020-1328-1.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Malnutrition of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (α-tocopherol, α-TOH) was observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or dementia patients. However, how these vitamins affect cognitive function of subjects with T2DM was seldom reported. The objective of this study was to determine the association of circulating retinol and α-TOH with cognition in aging subjects with T2DM.

METHODS:

A total of 448 T2DM subjects and 448 age, gender and education matched control subjects (aged 55-75 years) were included in the study. Demographic characters of the participants were collected. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) method was used to collect dietary intake information. To assess the status of cognition, the MoCA test was used. Circulating retinol and α-TOH levels were compared between T2DM and non-T2DM subjects. Correlation of circulating retinol and α-TOH levels with cognitive function was analyzed in T2DM subjects. The effect of serum retinol and α-TOH levels on the risk of MCI in T2DM patients was explored.

RESULTS:

We found that T2DM-MCI subjects demonstrate lower serum retinol level than T2DM-nonMCI subjects (P < 0.01). Serum retinol level was positively correlated to cognitive function in T2DM subject (P < 0.05). T2DM subjects with higher circulating retinol level demonstrate higher cognitive scores in visual and executive, attention, language, memory and delayed recall domains (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

Diminished circulating retinol predicts an increased risk of MCI in T2DM patients. Our findings provide suggestions that optimal retinol nutritional status might benefit cognition and decrease the risk of MCI in aging subjects with T2DM.

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Pharmacological correction of alterations of apoptosis of the neurons of the hypothalamus suprachiasmatic nucleus and pinealocytes during aging and stress

Khuzhakhmetova LK, Teply DL, Bazhanova ED

Adv Gerontol. 2019;32(6):915-922.

Abstract

As is known, the pineal gland plays an important role in adaptogenesis, and the hypothalamus is one of the main links of the stress-reactive system and is involved in the regulation of the involution of the whole organism. So, the study of changes in these organs during stress and aging is very interesting. The aim of the work is to study the mechanisms of apoptosis of pinealocytes and neurosecretory cells of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus during aging, stress, and under the conditions of pharmacological correction of involutional processes and stress response (antioxidant alpha-tocopherol acetate, immunomodulator cycloferon). We used Wistar rats as model, young (2-4 months) and old (30 months). Age-related features of the apoptosis dynamics of pinealocytes and neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus were studied using TUNEL and immunohistochemistry, and the possibilities of pharmacological correction of apoptotic processes are determined. An age-dependent increase of apoptosis level of cells of suprachiasmatic nucleus and epiphysis in rats was revealed. The stress effect (immobilization) led to the intensification of cell death, more significant in older animals. The pineal gland and suprachiasmatic nucleus, traditionally regarded as regulators of circadian rhythms, are at the same time actively involved in general adaptation processes. The studied drugs (α-tocopherol-acetate, cycloferon, and their combination) have a pronounced anti-apoptotic, cytoprotective effect under physiological conditions during aging, as well as during non-specific emotional stress (immobilization) in young and old animals. The regulatory effect is accomplished by activating the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the neurosecretory cells of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pinealocytes.

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Cryptogenic Intracranial Hemorrhagic Strokes Associated with Hypervitaminosis E and Acutely Elevated α-Tocopherol Levels

Pirhadi-Tavandashti N, Imani H, Ebrahimpour-Koujan S, Samavat S, Hakemi MS

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2020 Mar 6:104747. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104747. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Up to 41% of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) are considered cryptogenic despite a thorough investigation to determine etiology. Certain over-the-counter supplements may increase proclivity to bleeding, and we hypothesize that specifically vitamin E may have an association with ICH and acutely elevated serum levels of α-tocopherol. Our aim is to report 3 cases of recently admitted patients with hypervitaminosis E and otherwise cryptogenic ICH.

METHODS:

At our institution between January and December 2018, 179 patients were admitted with ICH with 73 imputed to be “cryptogenic” (without clear etiology as per Structural vascular lesions, Medication, Amyloid angiopathy, Systemic disease, Hypertension, or Undetermined and Hypertension, Amyloid angiopathy, Tumor, Oral anticoagulants, vascular Malformation, Infrequent causes, and Cryptogenic criteria). Of these, we found 3 (4.1%) clearly admitted to consistent use of vitamin E supplementation for which α-tocopherol levels were checked. We describe the clinical presentation and course of these patients and their etiologic and diagnostic evaluations including neuroimaging and α-tocopherol laboratory data.

RESULTS:

All patients in this series were consistently consuming higher than recommended doses of vitamin E and developed acute ICH. The first 2 patients both had subcortical (thalamic) intraparenchymal hemorrhages while the third had an intraventricular hemorrhage. Serum α-tocopherol levels in patient A, B, and C were elevated at 30.8, 46.7, and 23.3 mg/L, respectively (normal range 5.7-19.9 mg/L) with a mean of 33.6 mg/L. No clear alternate etiologies to their ICH could be conclusively determined despite thorough workups.

CONCLUSIONS:

In patients with cryptogenic ICH, clinicians should consider hypervitaminosis E and check serum α-tocopherol level during admission. Reviewing the patient’s pharmacologic history, including over-the-counter supplements such as vitamin E, may help identify its association, and its avoidance in the future may mitigate risk. With its known vitamin K antagonism, hypo-prothrombinemic effect, cytochrome p-450 interaction, and antiplatelet activity, vitamin E may not be as benign as presumed. Its consumption in nonrecommended doses may increase ICH risk, which may be underestimated and under-reported.

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