A five-year follow-up study of antioxidants, oxidative stress and polyunsaturated fatty acids in schizophrenia

Solberg DK, Refsum H, Andreassen OA, Bentsen H

Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2019 Aug;31(4):202-212. doi: 10.1017/neu.2019.14. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Oxidative stress and dysregulated antioxidant defence may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated changes in antioxidants and oxidative stress from an acute to a later stable phase. We hypothesised that the levels of oxidative markers are increased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls; change from the acute to the stable phase; and are associated with the levels of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and symptom severity.

METHODS:

Fifty-five patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, assessed during an acute phase and 5 years later during a stable phase, and 51 healthy controls were included. We measured antioxidants (α-tocopherol, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin), markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane and reactive oxygen metabolites) and membrane fatty acids. Antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were compared in schizophrenia versus healthy controls, adjusting for differences in sex, age and smoking, and changes over time. Associations between symptoms and PUFA were also investigated.

RESULTS:

In the acute phase, α-tocopherol was significantly higher (p < 0.001), while albumin was lower (p < 0.001) compared with the stable phase. Changes in α-tocopherol were associated with PUFA levels in the acute phase. In the stable phase, schizophrenia patients had higher uric acid (p = 0.009) and lower bilirubin (p = 0.046) than healthy controls. CRP was higher in patients in the stable phase (p < 0.001), and there was no significant change from the acute phase.

CONCLUSION:

The present findings of change in antioxidant levels in the acute versus stable phase of schizophrenia the present findings suggest that redox regulation is dynamic and changes during different phases of the disorder.

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Familial vitamin E deficiency: Multiorgan complications support the adverse role of oxidative stress

Trotta E, Bortolotti S, Fugazzotto G, Gellera C, Montagnese S, Amodio P

Nutrition. 2019 Jul - Aug;63-64:57-60. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.11.012. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Abstract

Vitamin E is an essential micronutrient with relevant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties found in plant leaves, seeds, and products derived from their processing. Familial vitamin E deficiency is a rare inherited syndrome characterized by ataxia and peripheral neuropathy with a massive decrease in plasma vitamin E (<0.5 mg/dL). This report describes the history of two siblings suffering from ataxia with vitamin E deficiency who developed premature systemic disorders (atherosclerotic vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and liver steatosis) in absence of relevant risk factors. The association of neuromuscular symptoms and multiorgan involvement in patients with ataxia with vitamin E deficiency has not been reported to our knowledge. The lack of an effective vitamin E activity seems to be implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and other diseases in which oxidative stress is a risk factor.

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Vitamin E and Alzheimer’s disease: what do we know so far?

Browne D, McGuinness B, Woodside JV, McKay GJ

Clin Interv Aging. 2019 Jul 18;14:1303-1317. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S186760. eCollection 2019.

Abstract

Vitamin E has been proposed as a potential clinical intervention for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) given the plausibility of its various biological functions in influencing the neurodegenerative processes associated with the condition. The tocopherol and tocotrienol isoforms of vitamin Ehave multiple properties including potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics, in addition to influences on immune function, cellular signalling and lowering cholesterol. Several of these roles offer a theoretical rationale for providing benefit for the treatment of AD-associated pathology. Diminished circulating concentrations of vitamin E have been demonstrated in individuals with AD. Reduced plasma levels have furthermore been associated with an increased risk of AD development while intake, particularly from dietary sources, may limit or reduce the rate of disease progression. This benefit may be linked to synergistic actions between vitamin E isoforms and other micronutrients. Nevertheless, randomised trials have found limited and inconsistent evidence of vitamin E supplementation as an effective clinical intervention. Thus, despite a strong rationale in support of a beneficial role for vitamin E for the treatment of AD, the evidence remains inconclusive. Several factors may partly explain this discrepancy and represent the difficulties of translating complex laboratory evidence and dietary interactions into clinical interventions. Methodological design limitations of existing randomised trials and restrictions to supplementation with a single vitamin E isoform may also limit the influence of effect. Moreover, several factors influence individual responsiveness to vitamin E intake and recent findings suggest variation in the underlying genetic architecture attenuates vitamin E biological availability and activity which likely contributes to the variation in clinical responsiveness and the failure of randomised trials to date. Importantly, the clinical safety of vitamin E remains controversial and warrants further investigation.

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Effect of atherosclerosis and the protective effect of the antioxidant vitamin E on the rabbit cerebellum

Elbeltagy MAF, Elkholy WB, Salman AS

Microscopy (Oxf). 2019 Jul 15. pii: dfz023. doi: 10.1093/jmicro/dfz023. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Atherosclerosis is a major cardiovascular disease and one of the commonest causes of mortality in the world. Speech, balance, fine motor control and cognition are affected by atherosclerosis of cerebellar arteries. This study investigated the protective role of vitamin E against induced atherosclerosis in the rabbit cerebellum.

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Vitamin E modifies high-fat diet-induced reduction of seizure threshold in rats: Role of oxidative stress

Alzoubi KH, Hasan ZA, Khabour OF, Mayyas FA, Al Yacoub ON, Banihani SA, Alomari MA, Alrabadi NN

Physiol Behav. 2019 Jul 1;206:200-205. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.04.011. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Abstract

There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is a causal factor in different neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. High-fat diet (HFD) has been shown to induce oxidative stress and neuronal damage that may increase susceptibility to seizures. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationships between vitamin E, a potent antioxidant, HFD, and chemically induced seizures, using the PTZ seizure model in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into four groups: control, HFD, vitamin E (Vit E), and high-fat diet with vitamin E (HFD + Vit E) group. Vitamin E and/or HFD were administered to animals for 6 weeks. Thereafter, PTZ seizure threshold was measured in control and treated rats, and different brain regions were analyzed for levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Current results revealed a significant reduction in PTZ seizure threshold in rats consuming HFD, which could be prevented by vitamin E supplement. Alongside, vitamin E supplement prevented HFD induced changes in oxidative stress biomarkers and capacity enzymes. Therefore, current results suggest that prolonged consumption of HFD increases susceptibility to PTZ induced seizures, which may be related to HFD induced oxidative stress. This increase in the PTZ susceptibility could be prevented by the administration of vitamin E, probably through its antioxidant effect, particularly at the brain hippocampal region.

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Vitamin E modifies high-fat diet-induced reduction of seizure threshold in rats: Role of oxidative stress

Alzoubi KH, Hasan ZA, Khabour OF, Mayyas FA, Al Yacoub ON, Banihani SA, Alomari MA, Alrabadi NN

Physiol Behav. 2019 Jul 1;206:200-205. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.04.011. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Abstract

There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is a causal factor in different neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. High-fat diet (HFD) has been shown to induce oxidative stress and neuronal damage that may increase susceptibility to seizures. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationships between vitamin E, a potent antioxidant, HFD, and chemically induced seizures, using the PTZ seizure model in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into four groups: control, HFD, vitamin E (Vit E), and high-fat diet with vitamin E (HFD + Vit E) group. Vitamin E and/or HFD were administered to animals for 6 weeks. Thereafter, PTZ seizure threshold was measured in control and treated rats, and different brain regions were analyzed for levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Current results revealed a significant reduction in PTZ seizure threshold in rats consuming HFD, which could be prevented by vitamin E supplement. Alongside, vitamin E supplement prevented HFD induced changes in oxidative stress biomarkers and capacity enzymes. Therefore, current results suggest that prolonged consumption of HFD increases susceptibility to PTZ induced seizures, which may be related to HFD induced oxidative stress. This increase in the PTZ susceptibility could be prevented by the administration of vitamin E, probably through its antioxidant effect, particularly at the brain hippocampal region.

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α-Tocopherol Restriction Dysregulates Neurogenesis-Related Gene Expression in Brains of Weanling α-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Knockout Mice (P11-134-19)

Ranard K, Kuchan M, Erdman J Jr

Curr Dev Nutr. 2019 Jun 13;3(Suppl 1). pii: nzz048.P11-134-19. doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzz048.P11-134-19. eCollection 2019 Jun.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Humans with vitamin E (α-tocopherol, αT) deficiency develop neurological disorders. Similarly, α-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa-/- ) mice have low vitamin E status and exhibit neurodegeneration with age. Shifts in the transcriptome may precede behavioral manifestations of vitamin E deficiency, but it is unknown how early abnormalities occur. Aberrations during brain development could have lifelong implications. The study objective was to determine how αT restriction during early-life affects the expression of pre-selected neurogenesis-related genes in the cerebellum (CB) and cerebral cortex (CC) of Ttpa-/- weanlings.

METHODS:

Female Ttpa+/+ (n = 9) and Ttpa-/- (n = 10) mice were nursed by Ttpa+/- dams until postnatal day 21. Dams were fed AIN-93G diet (75 mg αT/kg diet) during days 1-9 of gestation, and αT-stripped diet for the rest of the study. Homogenized brain tissues from 21 day old weanlings were used to measure αT concentrations via HPLC-PDA. The expression of genes critical for brain development (RoraShh), myelination (Plp1, Cntnap1, Mbp, Mobp, Nr1h3), synaptic function (Cplx1, Cplx2, Vamp2, Necab1, Prkcg), and αT cellular uptake (Scarb1) were measured in the CB and CC via real-time qPCR.

RESULTS:

αT levels were significantly decreased in brains of Ttpa-/- mice (0.1 ± 0.1 nmol/g) compared to Ttpa+/+ mice (9.8 ± 1.4 nmol/g) (P < 0.001), confirming their low αT status. RoraShhCntnap1, and Mbp were significantly upregulated (P < 0.05) in both the CB and CC of Ttpa-/- mice, while several genes were only upregulated in one brain region (Plp1 in the CB, Mobp in the CC). Necab1 and Scarb1 were significantly downregulated in the CB of Ttpa-/- mice (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

αT restriction during the fetal and postnatal periods alters the expression of neurogenesis-related genes. These findings support a role for αT in brain development.

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Vitamin E Prevents ΔN-Bcl-xL-associate Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Primary Hippocampal Neurons (P14-024-19)

Park HA, Mnatsakanyan N, Broman K, Jonas E

Curr Dev Nutr. 2019 Jun 13;3(Suppl 1). pii: nzz052.P14-024-19. doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzz052.P14-024-19. eCollection 2019 Jun.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) is a pro-survival protein localized to mitochondria. Bcl-xL is reported to support brain function by enhancing neuronal energy metabolism, synapse formation, and neurite outgrowth. However, under exposure to excitotoxic stimulation and subsequent oxidative stress, Bcl-xL undergoes caspase dependent cleavage to ∆N-Bcl-xL. Accumulation of ∆N-Bcl-xL is associated with neuronal death; thus, approaches that prevent ∆N-Bcl-xL accumulation protect neurons from excitotoxic insult. In this study, we hypothesize that ∆N-Bcl-xL formation is regulated by redox status in mitochondria. We thus tested if production of ∆N-Bcl-xL can be inhibited by the fat-soluble antioxidant α-tocotrienol (TCT) given its ability to scavenge free radicals produced in the mitochondrial membrane.

METHODS:

Primary hippocampal neurons were treated with α-TCT, glutamate, or a combination of both, and mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial potential, caspase activity, and ∆N-Bcl-xL protein levels were quantified.

RESULTS:

Glutamate caused abnormalities in mitochondrial function leading to neuronal death. The antioxidant α-TCT protected neurons from glutamate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cytotoxicity. α-TCT treatment protected against cleavage of full length anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL to form pro-death ∆N-Bcl-xL. α-TCT significantly attenuated glutamate-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, caspase 3 activation and ∆N-Bcl-xL formation at mitochondria.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data suggests that oxidative stress production during excitotoxicity is responsible for the formation of ∆N-Bcl-xL. Thus, application of a lipophilic antioxidant such as vitamin E is neuroprotective by improving mitochondrial redox status and preventing production of neurotoxic ∆N-Bcl-xL.

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Protective potential of Vitamin E against methylphenidate-induced male gonadal changes in albino rats.

Iqbal S, Hameed U, Hasan B, Zia-Ul-Islam, Ahmed M, Brohi AH

Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2019 May-Jun;13(3):19-23.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ranks among the top neuropsychiatric disorder of childhood and adolescents. Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most frequently used pharmacologic agent to treat this condition. Its long-term use has been associated with many unwanted and adverse effects on many organs including male gonads, but so far no study has been done to find out a protective agent. This study investigated the protective potential of Vitamin E (Vit E) against the microscopic and morphometric alterations in male gonads induced by MPH, using albino rats.

METHODS:

Adult male albino rats were assigned into three equal groups including one control and two experimental groups. Experimental groups administered with MPH (10 mg/kg) and MPH (10 mg/kg) + Vit E orally (50 mg/kg), daily for 40 days. Testes of the sacrificed animals were removed, processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for examining the microscopic and morphometric alterations and protective potential of Vit E. Data were analyzed using ANOVA.

RESULTS:

Experimental animals treated with MPH showed a significant decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules (296.86 ± 14.70 µm) and height of germinal epithelium (51.73 ± 3.15 µm) with a corresponding gain in the thickness of the interstitium (47.05 ± 4.94 µm). Animals treated with MPH + Vit E did not reveal any significant testicular microscopic changes and seminiferous tubular alterations induced by MPH.

CONCLUSION:

Vit E demonstrated a protective potential against the adverse changes induced by MPH in the male gonads in albino rats.

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Vitamin E status in healthy population in Asia: a review of current literature

Malik A, Eggersdorfer M, Trilok-Kumar G

Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 May 24:1-14. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000590. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Vitamin E is a lipid soluble antioxidant which mainly circulates as α-tocopherol in the human plasma. Its deficiency is associated with ataxia, neuropathy, anaemia and several other health conditions. Although substantial data on vitamin E status has been published worldwide, there is paucity of data on the extent of deficiency from most Asian countries, including India. Part of the problem is lack of validated biomarkers for vitamin E and no consensus on cut offs for defining deficiency and sufficiency. Thus, interpretation of the data on the vitamin E status is difficult. Limited available data from 31 studies on vitamin E status in healthy people from Asia, the most populated continent, has been collated for the purpose of this review. Broadly, the results suggest inadequate vitamin E status in most age groups, with the prevalence of deficiency reaching 67%, 80%, 56% and 72% in infants, children and adolescents, adults, elderly and pregnant women, respectively, based on varying cut offs. The findings are not surprising as both, vitamin E intakes and its status have not received too much attention in the past. Lack of conclusive data accentuates the need for more research on the vitamin E status across all age groups and to define age, gender and physiological state specific cut offs for vitamin E levels.

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