The vitamin E derivative garcinoic acid from Garcinia kola nut seeds attenuates the inflammatory response

Wallert M, Bauer J, Kluge S, Schmölz L, Chen YC, Ziegler M, Searle AK, Maxones A, Schubert M, Thürmer M, Pein H, Koeberle A, Werz O, Birringer M, Peter K, Lorkowski S

Redox Biol. 2019 Jun;24:101166. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101166. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Abstract

The plant Garcinia kola is used in African ethno-medicine to treat various oxidation- and inflammation-related diseases but its bioactive compounds are not well characterized. Garcinoic acid (GA) is one of the few phytochemicals that have been isolated from Garcinia kola. We investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanol extract of Garcinia kola seeds (NE) and purified GA, as a major phytochemical in these seeds, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and its anti-atherosclerotic potential in high fat diet fed ApoE-/- mice. This study outlines an optimized procedure for the extraction and purification of GA from Garcinia kola seeds with an increased yield and a purity of >99%. We found that LPS-induced upregulation of iNos and Cox2 expression, and the formation of the respective signaling molecules nitric oxide and prostanoids, were significantly diminished by both the NE and GA. In addition, GA treatment in mice decreased intra-plaque inflammation by attenuating nitrotyrosinylation. Further, modulation of lymphocyte sub-populations in blood and spleen have been detected, showing immune regulative properties of GA. Our study provides molecular insights into the anti-inflammatory activities of Garcinia kola and reveals GA as promising natural lead for the development of multi-target drugs to treat inflammation-driven diseases.

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Evidence for antinociceptive effects of combined administration of vitamin E and celecoxib in tail-flick and formalin test in male rats

Shamsi Meymandi M, Sepehri G, Izadi G, Zamiri Z

Pharmacol Rep. 2019 Jun;71(3):457-464. doi: 10.1016/j.pharep.2019.02.005. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E co-administration with celecoxib in thermal and inflammatory pain in two model of pain assessment including thermal tail flick test of acute pain and formalin induced inflammatory model in adult male rats.

METHODS:

Seventy two male Wistar rats were divided into a vehicle received intraperitoneally olive oil, indomethacin (20 mg/kg), vitamin E(100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), celecoxib (3, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) groups, and combination groups received the combination of vitamin E (100 and 200 mg/kg) and celecoxib (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg). All drugs were dissolved in olive oil. Antinociceptive effect in tail-flick was measured using Area Under Curve (AUC) of responses and Maximum Possible Effect (%MPE) and pain score was used for antinociceptive response in formalin test.

RESULTS:

Vitamin E and celecoxib changed time course of pain scores in a dose related manner in formalin test but not in tail-flick test. Vitamin E (200 mg/kg) had no effect and merely 60 mg/kg of celecoxib increased %MPE and AUC in tail-flick. The combination of vitamin E(100 or 200 mg/kg) with celecoxib (3 or 10 mg/kg) decreased pain scores compared to vehicle in both phases of formalin test, while in chronic phase (II) the pain scores of combination groups were also decreased compared to vitamin E and celecoxib. However, in tail-flick test the combination of ineffective doses of vitamin E (200 mg/kg) and celecoxib (10 and 30 mg/kg) increased %MPE and AUC compared to vehicle but not compared to celecoxib or vitamin E.

CONCLUSIONS:

Vitamin E and celecoxib showed a dose related antinociceptive effect in inflammatory but not in thermal model of acute pain. However the co-administration of vitamin E with celecoxib caused a significant increase in the antinociceptive effect which was similar to indomethacin, as a standard anti-inflammatory drug. So we suggest the concomitant use of vitamin E with celecoxib and other NSAIDs for potentiation of both anti- inflammatory and analgesic response, as well as the reduction of cardiovascular side effects of celecoxib.

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Effects of vitamin A and vitamin E on attenuation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-induced toxicity in the liver of male Wistar rats

Moradi A, Ziamajidi N, Ghafourikhosroshahi A, Abbasalipourkabir R

Mol Biol Rep. 2019 Jun;46(3):2919-2932. doi: 10.1007/s11033-019-04752-4. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Abstract

The increasing application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NTiO2) in life and the toxicity potential of these nanoparticles have raised concerns about their detrimental effects on human health. This study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of vitamin Eand vitamin A against hepatotoxicity induced by NTiO2 in rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of six rats each. Intoxicated group received 300 mg/kg NTiO2 for two weeks by gavage. Groups treated with vitamin E (100 IU/kg), vitamin A (100 IU/kg) and mixture of these vitamins were orally administered for 3 weeks (started 7 days before NTiO2 administration). In order to investigate the redox changes, total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, and lipid peroxidation were determined in liver tissue as well as activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. In addition, inflammatory responses were assessed by measuring the expression of NF-κB (mRNA) and TNF-α (mRNA and protein). Histopathological analysis and measurement of liver enzymes (ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH in serum) were also done to determine hepatic injury. In liver, NTiO2 caused hepatic injury, redox perturbation, and reduction of antioxidant enzymes and elevation of inflammatory mediators, significantly. However, treatment with vitamins was able to significantly ameliorate these alterations. This study highlights the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of vitamins A and E against toxicity of NTiO2 and poses the use of these vitamins to mitigate the toxic effects of this nanoparticles in NTiO2-contained products.

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Beneficial effects of vitamin E on radioiodine induced gastrointestinal damage: an experimental and pathomorphological study

Yumusak N, Sadic M, Akbulut A, Aydinbelge FN, Koca G, Korkmaz M

Bratisl Lek Listy. 2019;120(4):263-269. doi: 10.4149/BLL_2019_048.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E in the prevention of radioiodine (RAI) induced gastrointestinal damage.

METHOD:

Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Group-1 was untreated control group, Group-2 was orally administered single dose of 111 MBq RAI, and Group-3 was orally administered 111 MBq RAI and 1 mL of oral vitamin EVitamin E was started two days before RAI administration and was continued for five days once daily after RAI. Pathomorphological parameters of gastrointestinal tissues (stomach, small intestines and bowels) were measured using Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining.

RESULTS:

Varying degrees of inflammation, edema, ulcer, mucosal degeneration, necrosis and fibrosis were seen in the stomach, small intestine and bowel tissues of the rats in both study groups and not in the control group. The differences were statistically significant between these groups for all parameters (p < 0.05). The histopathological damage in the vitamin E treated group was significantly less than the damage in the RAI only group (p < 0.05 for all pathomorphological parameters).

CONCLUSION:

The results of this study showed that vitamin E has a radioprotective property with antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effects protecting against gastrointestinal damage caused by radioiodine.

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α-Tocopherol, but Not γ-Tocopherol, Attenuates the Expression of Selective Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha-Induced Genes in Primary Human Aortic Cell Lines

Ranard KM, Kuchan MJ, Erdman JW Jr

Lipids. 2019 May;54(5):289-299. doi: 10.1002/lipd.12149. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Abstract

Of the antioxidant vitamin E isoforms, α-tocopherol (αT) and γ-tocopherol (γT) are the most abundant in the human diet, and αT is consumed from both natural and synthetic sources. αT and γT may differentially impact inflammation and influence cardiovascular outcomes, in part by modulating gene expression. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of natural αT, synthetic αT, and γT on gene expression in two human cell lines. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) and endothelial cells (HAEC) were either: (1) treated with 25 μM tocopherolsalone, or (2) pretreated with tocopherols prior to a pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF-α) stimulation. The expression of atherosclerosis-related genes was measured using RT2 Profiler PCR arrays. Tocopherol treatments alone did not significantly modulate the expression of genes in unstimulated HASMC or HAEC. TNF-α stimulation significantly upregulated genes involved with apoptosis and stress response in both cell lines. Pretreating cells with tocopherols did not normalize the gene expression changes induced by TNF-α. However, αT pretreatments, but not γT pretreatments, attenuated TNF expression in both HASMC and HAEC. These findings suggest that under stimulated conditions, αT modestly modulates the expression of selective genes and that αT may be more anti-inflammatory than γT.

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α-Tocopherol, but Not γ-Tocopherol, Attenuates the Expression of Selective Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha-Induced Genes in Primary Human Aortic Cell Lines

Ranard KM, Kuchan MJ, Erdman JW Jr

Lipids. 2019 Apr 16. doi: 10.1002/lipd.12149. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Of the antioxidant vitamin E isoforms, α-tocopherol (αT) and γ-tocopherol (γT) are the most abundant in the human diet, and αT is consumed from both natural and synthetic sources. αT and γT may differentially impact inflammation and influence cardiovascular outcomes, in part by modulating gene expression. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of natural αT, synthetic αT, and γT on gene expression in two human cell lines. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) and endothelial cells (HAEC) were either: (1) treated with 25 μM tocopherolsalone, or (2) pretreated with tocopherols prior to a pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF-α) stimulation. The expression of atherosclerosis-related genes was measured using RT2 Profiler PCR arrays. Tocopherol treatments alone did not significantly modulate the expression of genes in unstimulated HASMC or HAEC. TNF-α stimulation significantly upregulated genes involved with apoptosis and stress response in both cell lines. Pretreating cells with tocopherols did not normalize the gene expression changes induced by TNF-α. However, αT pretreatments, but not γT pretreatments, attenuated TNF expression in both HASMC and HAEC. These findings suggest that under stimulated conditions, αT modestly modulates the expression of selective genes and that αT may be more anti-inflammatory than γT.

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Effects of Palm Oil Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) and Carotenes in Ovalbumin (OVA)-Challenged Asthmatic Brown Norway Rats

Zainal Z, Abdul Rahim A, Khaza'ai H, Chang SK

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 10;20(7). pii: E1764. doi: 10.3390/ijms20071764.

Abstract

Synthetic therapeutic drugs for asthma, a chronic airway inflammation characterised by strong eosinophil, mast cell, and lymphocyte infiltration, mucus hyper-production, and airway hyper-responsiveness, exhibit numerous side effects. Alternatively, the high antioxidant potential of palm oil phytonutrients, including vitamin E (tocotrienol-rich fractions; TRF) and carotene, may be beneficial for alleviating asthma. Here, we determined the therapeutic efficacy of TRF, carotene, and dexamethasone in ovalbumin-challenged allergic asthma in Brown Norway rats. Asthmatic symptoms fully developed within 8 days after the second sensitization, and were preserved throughout the time course via intranasal ovalbumin re-challenge. Asthmatic rats were then orally administered 30 mg/kg body weight TRF or carotene. TRF-treated animals exhibited reduced inflammatory cells in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid. TRF- and carotene-treated rats exhibited notable white blood cell reduction comparable to that from dexamethasone. TRF- and carotene-treatment also downregulated pro-inflammatory markers (IL-β, IL-6, TNF-α), coincident with anti-inflammatory marker IL-4 and IL-13 upregulation. Treatment significantly reduced asthmatic rat plasma CRP and IgE, signifying improved systemic inflammation. Asthmatic lung histology displayed severe edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial wall, whereas treated animals retained healthy, normal-appearing lungs. The phytonutrients tocotrienol and carotene thus exhibit potential benefits for consumption as nutritional adjuncts in asthmatic disease.

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Effects of vitamin A and vitamin E on attenuation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-induced toxicity in the liver of male Wistar rats

Moradi A, Ziamajidi N, Ghafourikhosroshahi A, Abbasalipourkabir R

Mol Biol Rep. 2019 Mar 18. doi: 10.1007/s11033-019-04752-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

The increasing application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NTiO2) in life and the toxicity potential of these nanoparticles have raised concerns about their detrimental effects on human health. This study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of vitamin Eand vitamin A against hepatotoxicity induced by NTiO2 in rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of six rats each. Intoxicated group received 300 mg/kg NTiO2 for two weeks by gavage. Groups treated with vitamin E (100 IU/kg), vitamin A (100 IU/kg) and mixture of these vitamins were orally administered for 3 weeks (started 7 days before NTiO2 administration). In order to investigate the redox changes, total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, and lipid peroxidation were determined in liver tissue as well as activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. In addition, inflammatory responses were assessed by measuring the expression of NF-κB (mRNA) and TNF-α (mRNA and protein). Histopathological analysis and measurement of liver enzymes (ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH in serum) were also done to determine hepatic injury. In liver, NTiO2 caused hepatic injury, redox perturbation, and reduction of antioxidant enzymes and elevation of inflammatory mediators, significantly. However, treatment with vitamins was able to significantly ameliorate these alterations. This study highlights the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of vitamins A and E against toxicity of NTiO2 and poses the use of these vitamins to mitigate the toxic effects of this nanoparticles in NTiO2-contained products.

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Comparing the effects of vitamin E tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation and α-tocopherol supplementation on gene expression in healthy older adults

Ghani SMA, Goon JA, Azman NHEN, Zakaria SNA, Hamid Z, Ngah WZW

Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2019 Mar 7;74:e688. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2019/e688.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study aims to compare the differential gene expression resulting from tocotrienol-rich fraction and α-tocopherol supplementation in healthy older adults.

METHODS:

A total of 71 eligible subjects aged 50 to 55 years from Gombak and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were divided into three groups and supplemented with placebo (n=23), α-tocopherol (n=24) or tocotrienol-rich fraction (n=24). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months of supplementation for microarray analysis.

RESULTS:

The number of genes altered by α-tocopherol was higher after 6 months (1,410) than after 3 months (273) of supplementation. α-Tocopherol altered the expression of more genes in males (952) than in females (731). Similarly, tocotrienol-rich fraction modulated the expression of more genes after 6 months (1,084) than after 3 months (596) and affected more genes in males (899) than in females (781). α-Tocopherol supplementation modulated pathways involving the response to stress and stimuli, the immune response, the response to hypoxia and bacteria, the metabolism of toxins and xenobiotics, mitosis, and synaptic transmission as well as activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase and complement pathways after 6 months. However, tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation affected pathways such as the signal transduction, apoptosis, nuclear factor kappa B kinase, cascade extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2, immune response, response to drug, cell adhesion, multicellular organismal development and G protein signaling pathways.

CONCLUSION:

Supplementation with either α-tocopherol or tocotrienol-rich fraction affected the immune and drug response and the cell adhesion and signal transduction pathways but modulated other pathways differently after 6 months of supplementation, with sex-specific responses.

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A novel nitroalkene-α-tocopherol analogue inhibits inflammation and ameliorates atherosclerosis in Apo E knockout mice

Rodriguez-Duarte J, Galliussi G, Dapueto R, Rossello J, Malacrida L, Kamaid A, Schopfer FJ, Escande C, López GV, Batthyány C

Br J Pharmacol. 2019 Mar;176(6):757-772. doi: 10.1111/bph.14561. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation with concomitant lipid accumulation in the arterial wall. Anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties have been described for a novel class of endogenous nitroalkenes (nitrated-unsaturated fatty acids), formed during inflammation and digestion/absorption processes. The lipid-associated antioxidant α-tocopherol is transported systemically by LDL particles including to the atheroma lesions. To capitalize on the overlapping and complementary salutary properties of endogenous nitroalkenes and α-tocopherol, we designed and synthesized a novel nitroalkene-α-tocopherol analogue (NATOH) to address chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis, particularly at the lesion sites.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:

We synthesized NATOH, determined its electrophilicity and antioxidant capacity and studied its effects over pro-inflammatory and cytoprotective pathways in macrophages in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrated its incorporation into lipoproteins and tissue both in vitro and in vivo, and determined its effect on atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses in vivo using the Apo E knockout mice model.

KEY RESULTS:

NATOH exhibited similar antioxidant capacity to α-tocopherol and, due to the presence of the nitroalkenyl group, like endogenous nitroalkenes, it exerted electrophilic reactivity. NATOH was incorporated in vivo into the VLDL/LDL lipoproteins particles to reach the atheroma lesions. Furthermore, oral administration of NATOH down-regulated NF-κB-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory markers (including IL-1β and adhesion molecules) and ameliorated atherosclerosis in Apo E knockout mice.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

In toto, the data demonstrate a novel pharmacological strategy for the prevention of atherosclerosis based on a creative, natural and safe drug delivery system of a non-conventional anti-inflammatory compound (NATOH) with significant potential for clinical application.

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