Vitamin C and E Treatment Blunts Sprint Interval Training-Induced Changes in Inflammatory Mediator-, Calcium-, and Mitochondria-Related Signaling in Recreationally Active Elderly Humans

Victoria L Wyckelsma, Tomas Venckunas, Marius Brazaitis, Stefano Gastaldello, Audrius Snieckus, Nerijus Eimantas, Neringa Baranauskiene, Andrejus Subocius, Albertas Skurvydas, Mati Pääsuke, Helena Gapeyeva, Priit Kaasik, Reedik Pääsuke, Jaak Jürimäe, Brigitte A Graf, Bengt Kayser, Nicolas Place, Daniel C Andersson, Sigitas Kamandulis, Håkan Westerblad

Antioxidants (Basel) . 2020 Sep 17;9(9):E879. doi: 10.3390/antiox9090879.

Abstract

Sprint interval training (SIT) has emerged as a time-efficient training regimen for young individuals. Here, we studied whether SIT is effective also in elderly individuals and whether the training response was affected by treatment with the antioxidants vitamin C and E. Recreationally active elderly (mean age 65) men received either vitamin C (1 g/day) and vitamin E (235 mg/day) or placebo. Training consisted of nine SIT sessions (three sessions/week for three weeks of 4-6 repetitions of 30-s all-out cycling sprints) interposed by 4 min rest. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were taken before, 1 h after, and 24 h after the first and last SIT sessions. At the end of the three weeks of training, SIT-induced changes in relative mRNA expression of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS)- and mitochondria-related proteins, inflammatory mediators, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ channel, the ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), were blunted in the vitamin treated group. Western blots frequently showed a major (>50%) decrease in the full-length expression of RyR1 24 h after SIT sessions; in the trained state, vitamin treatment seemed to provide protection against this severe RyR1 modification. Power at exhaustion during an incremental cycling test was increased by ~5% at the end of the training period, whereas maximal oxygen uptake remained unchanged; vitamin treatment did not affect these measures. In conclusion, treatment with the antioxidants vitamin C and E blunts SIT-induced cellular signaling in skeletal muscle of elderly individuals, while the present training regimen was too short or too intense for the changes in signaling to be translated into a clear-cut change in physical performance.

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Dietary Intervention Accelerates NASH Resolution Depending on Inflammatory Status with Minor Additive Effects on Hepatic Injury by Vitamin E Supplementation

Julie Hviid Klaebel, Günaj Rakipovski, Birgitte Andersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg

Antioxidants (Basel) . 2020 Sep 1;9(9):E808. doi: 10.3390/antiox9090808.

Abstract

Despite the lack of effective pharmacotherapy against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis, vitamin E (vitE) supplementation and lifestyle modifications are recommended for the management of NASH due to promising clinical results. We recently reported a positive effect of supplementation with 800 IU vitE and atorvastatin on NASH resolution in guinea pigs. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high-dose vitE therapy combined with dietary intervention against progressive NASH and advanced fibrosis in the guinea pig model. Sixty-six guinea pigs received either high-fat (HF) or standard guinea pig chow diet (Control) for 25 weeks. Prior to eight weeks of intervention, HF animals were allocated into groups; dietary intervention (Chow) or dietary intervention with 2000 IU/d vitE supplementation (CvitE). Both Chow and CvitE reduced dyslipidemia, hepatic lipid accumulation and liver weight (p < 0.05), while CvitE further decreased hepatocellular ballooning (p < 0.05). Subanalyses of individual responses within intervention groups showed significant correlation between the hepatic hallmarks of NASH and lipid accumulation vs. inflammatory state (p < 0.05). Collectively, our results indicate that individual differences in sensitivity towards intervention and inflammatory status determine the potential beneficial effect of dietary intervention and high-dose vitE supplementation. Moreover, the study suggests that inflammation is a primary target in NASH treatment.

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The effect of royal jelly and tocotrienol-rich fraction along with calorie restriction on hypothalamic

Pardis Irandoost, Naimeh Mesri Alamdari, Atoosa Saidpour, Farzad Shidfar, Farnaz Farsi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad Reza Alivand, Mohammadreza Vafa

BMC Res Notes . 2020 Aug 31;13(1):409. doi: 10.1186/s13104-020-05258-0.

Abstract

Objectives: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes adipose tissue dysfunction and chronic inflammation in obesity. Royal jelly (RJ) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) are reported to ameliorate inflammation. However, the improving effects of RJ and TRF on inflammation from ER stress modulating view have not been assessed so far. Hence, we investigated the effect of RJ and TRF on ER stress and some adipose tissue-derived inflammatory markers in the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Wistar obese rats randomly allocated into 5 groups: HFD, calorie restriction diet (CRD), RJ + CRD, TRF + CRD, RJ + TRF + CRD. After 8-week intervention, adipose tissues and hypothalamus were dissected and serum was collected.

Results: RJ reduced glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78) expression as ER stress indicator in WAT and hypothalamus compared to CRD. Besides, RJ diminished the expression of inflammatory markers in white adipose tissue (WAT) and also decreased the serum concentration of them. TRF reduced inflammatory markers in the serum without remarkable effects on ER stress. Overall, RJ has protective effect against adipose tissue dysfunction and inflammation then suggested as a therapeutic approach to reduce some obesity-related complications. The impact of TRF in this regard is lower than RJ and limited to systemic inflammation improvement without remarkable changes in adipose tissue inflammation.

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Cellular uptake and anti-inflammatory effects of palm oil-derived delta (δ)-tocotrienol in microglia

Shi Wei Tan, Daud Ahmad Bin Israf Ali, Huzwah Khaza'ai, Jia Woei Wong, Sharmili Vidyadaran

Cell Immunol . 2020 Aug 28;357:104200. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2020.104200. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Tocopherols long dominated studies on vitamin E, although interest has shifted to tocotrienols. It was previously shown that δ-tocotrienol derived from palm oil reduced nitric oxide released by BV2 microglia as early as 18 h after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The current study measured δ-tocotrienol uptake by BV2 over a 24 h incubation period and its anti-inflammatory effects on primary microglia. Uptake of 17.5 μg/mL δ-tocotrienol by BV2 microglia began as early as 5 min and rose steeply to 21 ± 3% of the amount administered at 24 h. The amount of δ-tocotrienol retained in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia at 24 h was 14 ± 2%, with no substantial difference seen in unstimulated microglia. The same δ-tocotrienol regimen reduced nitric oxide levels by 82% at 24 h after lipopolysaccharide stimulation (p < 0.05). This was accompanied by decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression by 67 ± 5% compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05). In primary microglia, δ-tocotrienol downregulated IL-1β production, but TNF-α and IL-6 were not affected. δ-Tocotrienol also reduced prostaglandin E2 production by ~78%% and decreased transcription of COX-2 and 5-LOX, but not COX-1. This study showed the anti-inflammatory effects of δ-tocotrienol derived from palm oil and opens up interest for tocotrienol supplementation to reduce the effects of inflammatory conditions.

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Effects of pomegranate peel extract and vitamin E on the inflammatory status and endothelial function in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled clinical trial

Tina Jafari, Aziz A Fallah, Ali Reyhanian, Elham Sarmast

Food Funct . 2020 Aug 25. doi: 10.1039/d0fo01012j. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are major problems in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study assessed the effects of an 8 week administration of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and vitamin E (Vit E) alone or in combination on the biomarkers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and the biomarkers of endothelial function, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin, in HD patients. In a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial, 100 HD patients were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: (a) PPE + Vit E, received 2 pomegranate tablets (each tablet contained 225 mg PPE, equal to 90 mg ellagic acid) + 1 Vit E soft gel (400 IU) daily, (b) PPE, received 2 pomegranate tablets + 1 Vit E placebo soft gel daily, (c) Vit E, received 1 Vit E soft gel + 2 pomegranate placebo tablets daily, and (d) placebo, received 2 pomegranate placebo tablets + 1 Vit E placebo soft gel daily. For group allocation, a stratified block randomization procedure based on sex, age, and HD duration was used. Each intervention product and its placebo had identical shape, color, size, and packaging. Consumption of PPE + Vit E significantly reduced the serum CRP level (mean change: -7.12 ± 4.59 mg l-1, P < 0.001) compared to other groups, while reduced levels of IL-6 (mean change: -2.19 ± 2.33 pg ml-1, P < 0.001), TNF-α (mean change: -2.41 ± 3.21 pg ml-1, P = 0.008), ICAM-1 (mean change: -64.2 ± 111.0 ng ml-1, P = 0.017), and VCAM-1 (mean change: -117.7 ± 177.1 ng ml-1, P = 0.002) were observed compared to the control. There was no significant difference in the P-selectin level among the groups. Consumption of PPE or Vit E alone significantly reduced the CRP level (mean change for PPE: -3.58 ± 5.41 mg l-1, P < 0.001; mean change for Vit E: -3.25 ± 8.29 mg l-1, P = 0.002) compared to the control. As a result, consumption of PPE in combination with Vit E enhanced the inflammatory status and endothelial function in HD patients.

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Brain tocopherol levels are associated with lower activated microglia density in elderly human cortex

Francisca A de Leeuw, Julie A Schneider, Sonal Agrawal, Sue E Leurgans, Martha Clare Morris

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) . 2020 Aug 24;6(1):e12021. doi: 10.1002/trc2.12021. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Introduction: Higher brain tocopherol levels have been associated with lower levels of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear.

Methods: We studied the relations of α- and γ-tocopherol brain levels to microglia density in 113 deceased participants from the Memory and Aging Project. We used linear regression analyses to examine associations between tocopherol levels and microglia densities in a basic model adjusted for age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E (APOE)ε4 genotype (any ε4 allele vs. none) , and post-mortem time interval, and a second model additionally adjusted for total amyloid load and neurofibrillary tangle severity.

Results: Higher α- and γ-tocopherol levels were associated with lower total and activated microglia density in cortical but not in subcortical brain regions. The association between cortical α-tocopherol and total microglia density remained statistically significant after adjusting for AD neuropathology.

Discussion: These results suggest that the relation between tocopherols and AD might be partly explained by the alleviating effects of tocopherols on microglia activation.

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Form of Vitamin E Supplementation Affects Oxidative and Inflammatory Response in Exercising Horses

Madison M Fagan, Patricia Harris, Amanda Adams, Robert Pazdro, Amber Krotky, Jarrod Call, Kylee J Duberstein

J Equine Vet Sci . 2020 Aug;91:103103. doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103103. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Abstract

Vitamin E is an essential antioxidant that may benefit athletes by reducing oxidative stress and influencing cytokine expression. Supplements can be derived from natural or manufactured synthetic sources. This study aimed to determine (1) if supplemental vitamin E is beneficial to exercising horses and (2) if there is a benefit of natural versus synthetic vitamin E. After 2 weeks on the control diet (vitamin E-deficient grain and hay), 18 horses were divided into three groups and fed the control diet plus (1) 1000 IU/d synthetic α-tocopherol (SYN-L), (2) 4000 IU/d synthetic α-tocopherol (SYN-H), or (3) 4000 IU/d RRR-α-tocopherol (natural source [NAT]). On day 7, horses began a 6-week training protocol, with standard exercise tests (SETs) performed before and after the 6-week protocol. Venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 29, and 49. Horses fed NAT had higher α-tocopherol (P < .05) at post-SET1 through post-SET2. Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels were lower in NAT versus SYN-L horses after SET2 (P = .02). Serum aspartate aminotransferase was lower after exercise in NAT horses versus SYN-L and SYN-H (P = .02), and less reduction in stride duration was seen after exercise in NAT as compared with SYN-L and SYN-H (P = .02). Gene expression of tumor necrosis factor α was lower in NAT compared with SYN-H (P = .01) but not SYN-L. In conclusion, feeding higher levels of natural vitamin E source resulted in higher serum α-tocopherol levels as well as some improvement in oxidative and inflammatory response and improved functional outcomes in response to an exercise test.

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Form of Vitamin E Supplementation Affects Oxidative and Inflammatory Response in Exercising Horses

Madison M Fagan, Patricia Harris, Amanda Adams, Robert Pazdro, Amber Krotky, Jarrod Call, Kylee J Duberstein

J Equine Vet Sci . 2020 Aug;91:103103. doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103103. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Abstract

Vitamin E is an essential antioxidant that may benefit athletes by reducing oxidative stress and influencing cytokine expression. Supplements can be derived from natural or manufactured synthetic sources. This study aimed to determine (1) if supplemental vitamin E is beneficial to exercising horses and (2) if there is a benefit of natural versus synthetic vitamin E. After 2 weeks on the control diet (vitamin E-deficient grain and hay), 18 horses were divided into three groups and fed the control diet plus (1) 1000 IU/d synthetic α-tocopherol (SYN-L), (2) 4000 IU/d synthetic α-tocopherol (SYN-H), or (3) 4000 IU/d RRR-α-tocopherol (natural source [NAT]). On day 7, horses began a 6-week training protocol, with standard exercise tests (SETs) performed before and after the 6-week protocol. Venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 29, and 49. Horses fed NAT had higher α-tocopherol (P < .05) at post-SET1 through post-SET2. Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels were lower in NAT versus SYN-L horses after SET2 (P = .02). Serum aspartate aminotransferase was lower after exercise in NAT horses versus SYN-L and SYN-H (P = .02), and less reduction in stride duration was seen after exercise in NAT as compared with SYN-L and SYN-H (P = .02). Gene expression of tumor necrosis factor α was lower in NAT compared with SYN-H (P = .01) but not SYN-L. In conclusion, feeding higher levels of natural vitamin E source resulted in higher serum α-tocopherol levels as well as some improvement in oxidative and inflammatory response and improved functional outcomes in response to an exercise test.

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Acylphloroglucinol and tocotrienol derivatives from the fruits of Garcinia paucinervis

Xue Tan, Fangfang Zhong, Hongli Teng, Qingqing Li, Yitong Li, Zhinan Mei, Yu Chen, Guangzhong Yang

Fitoterapia . 2020 Jul 21;146:104688. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104688. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Three undescribed polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) and three tocotrienols derivatives, named as paucinochymol A-F (1-3 and 10-12), together with six known PPAPs, were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia paucinervis. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by extensive NMR analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation methods. Paucinochymol A (1) is the first compound of this type featuring a ω-isogeranyl with tetrahydrofuran unit at C-1. Paucinochymols D and E (4-5) belong to rare tocotrienol with one glorious macrocyclic and an ortho-quinone moiety, respectively. The antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities of all isolates were tested. Four PPAPs exhibited weak inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, T98, MCF-7) with IC50 values ranging from 10.0 to 16.0 μM. Paucinochymol D (10) displayed moderate inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production with the IC50 value of 19.8 μM.

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Inflammatory Diseases and Vitamin E-What Do We Know and Where Do We Go?

Maria Wallert, Lisa Börmel, Stefan Lorkowski

Mol Nutr Food Res . 2020 Jul 21;e2000097. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.202000097. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Inflammation-driven diseases and related comorbidities, such as the metabolic syndrome, obesity, fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases cause significant global burden. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrients alter inflammatory responses and can therefore make a decisive contribution to the treatment of these diseases. Recently, the inflammasome, a cytosolic multiprotein complex, has been identified as a key player in inflammation and the development of various inflammation-mediated disorders, with nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain (NLRP) 3 being the inflammasome of interest. Here an overview about the cellular signaling pathways underlying nuclear factor “kappa-light-chain-enhancer” of activated B-cells (NF-κB)- and NLRP3-mediated inflammatory processes, and the pathogenesis of the inflammatory diseases atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is provided; next, the current state of knowledge for drug-based and dietary-based interventions for treating cardiovascular diseases and NAFLD is discussed. To date, one of the most important antioxidants in the human diet is vitamin E. Various in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the different forms of vitamin E and also their derivatives have anti-inflammatory activity. Recent publications suggest that vitamin E-and possibly metabolites of vitamin E-are a promising therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory diseases such as NAFLD.

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