Application of Vitamin E Acetate on Staple Lines and Anastomoses of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Impact on Postoperative Pain and Acute Phase Reactants

Jaime Ruiz-Tovar, Alejandro Garcia, Carlos Ferrigni, Manuel Duran

Obes Surg . 2020 Apr 27. doi: 10.1007/s11695-020-04635-9.

Abstract

Purpose: Postoperative pain after laparoscopic surgery has 3 components: parietal, visceral, and associated with pneumoperitoneum. Visceral pain accounts for around 30% of the total pain and is less amenable to be controlled by multimodal analgesia. The topical application of vitamin E ointment has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect in the local inflammatory response against surgical aggression. Vitamin E has been also associated with a reduction in postoperative pain of skin wounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the topical application of vitamin E acetate on staple lines and anastomoses of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, as part of a multimodal analgesia scheme within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program.

Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial was performed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients receiving a topical application of vitamin E on staple lines and anastomoses (G1) and patients not receiving it (G2). The primary endpoint was postoperative pain, as measured by VAS 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes include morphine rescue needs, acute phase reactants 24 h after surgery, and hospital stay.

Results: One hundred forty patients were included, 70 in each group. Postoperative pain was 10 mm in G1 and 21.8 mm in G2 (p < 0.001). Morphine needs within the first 24 h were 2.9% in G1 and 13.2% in G2 (p = 0.026). C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in G1 (8.7 mg/dL vs 11.9; p = 0.016). Mean hospital stay was 2.1 days in G1 and 2.9 in G2 (p = 0.019).

Conclusion: Topical application of vitamin E reduces postoperative pain and acute phase reactants, allowing an earlier discharge.

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Anti-allergic Function of α-Tocopherol Is Mediated by Suppression of PI3K-PKB Activity in Mast Cells in Mouse Model of Allergic Rhinitis

Geping Wu, Hongyan Zhu, Xinyang Wu, Lili Liu, Xingkai Ma, Yifang Yuan, Xingli Fu, Ling Zhang, Yan Lv, Di Li, Jianyong Liu, Jianbin Lu, Yan Yu, Menglin Li

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) . 2020 Apr 22;S0301-0546(20)30036-7. doi: 10.1016/j.aller.2019.11.005.

Abstract

Background: Alpha-Tocopherol (α-TCP), one major form of vitamin E, has been known as a treatment for airway allergic inflammation. However, the role and mechanism of α-TCP in treating allergic rhinitis remains unclear.

Objective: In this study we examined the inhibitory function of α-TCP in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis.

Methods: Allergic phenotype was examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Total IgE, OVA-specific IgE, OVA-specific IgG1 and OVA-specific IgG2a levels were examined by ELISA. mRNA expression was measured by qPCR, protein levels were examined by Western Blot.

Results: Histological analysis of the nasal membranes revealed that there was a significant reduction in inflammatory cells appearance in cross-sections in alpha-TCP treatment of Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice compared to OVA sensitized animals. In addition, eosinophils were significantly reduced in nasal mucosa of alpha-TCP treatment of OVA-sensitized mice compared to the OVA group. Lower total IgE, OVA-specific IgE, OVA-specific IgG1 and OVA-specific IgG2a levels were found in alpha-TCP treatment of OVA-sensitized mice compared to the OVA group. Furthermore, we found that the subepithelial distribution of tryptase positive mast cells was reduced in the alpha-TCP treatment of OVA-sensitized mice. More importantly, the PI3K-PKB pathway was suppressed by α-TCP in mast cells.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that α-TCP-mediated suppression of PI3K-PKB activity in mast cells is a potential mechanism of anti-allergic function of α-TCP.

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Alpha-tocopherol Attenuates the Severity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced Pneumonia

Wagener BM, Anjum N, Evans C, Brandon A, Honavar J, Creighton J, Traber MG, Stuart RL, Stevens T, Pittet JF

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2020 Apr 3. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2019-0185OC. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a lethal pathogen that causes high mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. The Type III secretion system (T3SS) of P. aeruginosa mediates many of the adverse effects of infection with this pathogen including increased lung permeability in a toll-like receptor 4/Rho A/plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1-dependent manner. Alpha-tocopherol has anti-inflammatory properties that may make it a useful adjunct in treatment of this moribund infection. We measured transendothelial and transepithelial resistance, Rho A and PAI-1 activation, stress fiber formation, P. aeruginosa T3SS exoenzyme (Exo Y) intoxication into host cells, and survival in a murine model of pneumonia in the presence of P. aeruginosa and pretreatment with α-tocopherol. We found that α-tocopherol alleviated P. aeruginosa-mediated alveolar endothelial and epithelial paracellular permeability by inhibiting RhoA, in part, via PAI-1 activation and increased survival in a mouse model of P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Furthermore, we found that α-tocopherol decreased the activation of RhoA and PAI-1 by blocking the injection of T3SS exoenzymes into alveolar epithelial cells. P. aeruginosa is becoming increasingly antibiotic-resistant. We provide evidence that α-tocopherol could be a useful therapeutic agent for individuals that are susceptible to infection with P. aeruginosa such as those who are immunocompromised or critically ill.

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Antioxidants Reduce Muscular Dystrophy in the dy2J/dy2J Mouse Model of Laminin α2 Chain-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy

Harandi VM, Oliveira BMS, Allamand V, Friberg A, Fontes-Oliveira CC, Durbeej M

Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Mar 18;9(3). pii: E244. doi: 10.3390/antiox9030244.

Abstract

Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin α2 chain-deficiency (LAMA2-CMD) is a severe neuromuscular disorder without a cure. Using transcriptome and proteome profiling as well as functional assays, we previously demonstrated significant metabolic impairment in skeletal muscle from LAMA2-CMD patients and mouse models. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase when oxygen homeostasis is not maintained and, here, we investigate whether oxidative stress indeed is involved in the pathogenesis of LAMA2-CMD. We also analyze the effects of two antioxidant molecules, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and vitamin E, on disease progression in the dy2J/dy2J mouse model of LAMA2-CMD. We demonstrate increased ROS levels in LAMA2-CMD mouse and patient skeletal muscle. Furthermore, NAC treatment (150 mg/kg IP for 6 days/week for 3 weeks) led to muscle force loss prevention, reduced central nucleation and decreased the occurrence of apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress in LAMA2-CMD muscle. In addition, vitamin E (40 mg/kg oral gavage for 6 days/week for 2 weeks) improved morphological features and reduced inflammation and ROS levels in dy2J/dy2J skeletal muscle. We suggest that NAC and to some extent vitamin E might be potential future supportive treatments for LAMA2-CMD as they improve numerous pathological hallmarks of LAMA2-CMD.

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The use of herbal supplement Renotinex based on terpenes for the complex treatment of patients with urinary stone disease

Medvedev VL, Mihailov IV, Rozenkranc AM, Efremov ME, Muratov KU, Budanov AA

Urologiia. 2020 Mar;(1):32-38.

Abstract

AIM:

to evaluate the efficiency of dietary supplements Renotinex for the complex treatment of patients with urinary stone disease who undergone to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

a total of 60 patients with uncomplicated form of the urinary stone disease with the first stone episode (of size up to 1 cm) were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups of 30 people and treated by ESWL. In the first group, patients additionally received Renotinex. In the second group, standard complex therapy (antispasmodics, analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) was prescribed. The urinary level of 2-microglobulin and serum level of tocopherol were considered as markers of damage and inflammation. Pain intensity was assessed using visual analogue scale. Follow-up studies were carried out on the 1st, 7th and 14th day of therapy. Duration of treatment and follow-up was 1 month. The average number of ESWL sessions was 2.6 in both groups.

RESULTS:

according to the study, it was established that components of Renotinex had antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory effects on the genitourinary system, enhancing renal blood flow and decreasing the permeability of the kidney capillaries. In addition, Renotinex has diuretic effect and nephroprotective effect, and improves renal function, alleviating aggressive therapeutic influence of ESWL. Antioxidant and nephroprotective effect are among the main mechanisms of action of Renotinex.

CONCLUSION:

In patients who received Renotinex as dietary supplements fragments after ESWL pass twice as fast, while in patients who did not receive Renotinex, there was more pronounced damage to the kidney parenchyma diagnosed by urine level of 2-microglobulin. The serum concentration of vitamin E increases, while taking Renotinex, which may prevent the peroxidation of polyunsaturated lipids in cell membranes and enhances the nephroprotective effect of Renotinex.

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The effect of vitamin E supplementation on biomarkers of endothelial function and inflammation among hemodialysis patients: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial

Pirhadi-Tavandashti N, Imani H, Ebrahimpour-Koujan S, Samavat S, Hakemi MS

Complement Ther Med. 2020 Mar;49:102357. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102357. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on biomarkers of endothelial function (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 and Vascular Cell Adhesion Protein 1) and inflammatory markers (Interleukin 6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) among the hemodialysis patients.

METHODS:

To conduct this randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial, 49 hemodialysis patients, aged 20-60 years, were recruited and randomly divided into the intervention and control groups. The intervention group (n = 25) received 600 IU alpha-tocopherol soft gels (200 IU three times daily), while the controls (n = 24) consumed the identical placebo soft gels for 10 weeks. At the baseline and end of the study, 7 ml pre-dialysis blood samples were taken from all participants to measure their serum concentrations of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-6, and hs-CRP.

RESULTS:

Alpha-tocopherol supplementation reduced the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 significantly (-140.67 ± 57.25 ng/ml vs. -15.97 ± 79.19 ng/ml, P = 0.001 for ICAM-1 and –6.79 ± 4.76 ng/ml vs. 1.02 ± 3.22 ng/ml, P = 0.019 for VCAM-1). However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding the serum levels of hs-CRP (-0.15 ± 0.19 mg/l vs. 0.02 ± 0.12 mg/l; P = 0.32) and IL-6 (-0.03 ± 0.1 pg/ml vs. – 0.06 ± 0.11 pg/ml; P = 0.65).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results showed that 10 weeks of supplementation with 600 IU alpha-tocopherol improved ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels, but did not have any effect on the serum concentration of IL-6 and hs-CRP in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

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Retinol and α-tocopherol in pregnancy: Establishment of reference intervals and associations with CBC

Liu J, Zhan S, Jia Y, Li Y, Liu Y, Dong Y, Tang G, Li L, Zhai Y, Cao Z

Matern Child Nutr. 2020 Mar 5:e12975. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12975. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Profound physiological changes during pregnancy may affect the requirement of retinol and tocopherol, which are essential micronutrients for the maintenance of maternal health and foetal development. However, the current reference intervals (RIs) of retinol and tocopherol are based on non-pregnant population. In the present study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitation method for serum retinol and α-tocopherol was established and validated. In addition, we established trimester-specific RIs of retinol and α-tocopherol using the data from paired screening test for 31,301 outpatients who participated in the prenatal vitamins A/E evaluation program at our hospital using the Hoffmann method, which is a simple indirect RI estimation method that does not require the recruitment of healthy subjects. Further, to explore the associations between the levels of retinol and α-tocopherol and the parameters of complete blood count (CBC), the results of retinol, α-tocopherol, and CBC of 1,977 pregnant outpatients in the third trimester were analysed. The testing interval between the levels of vitamins and CBC was no more than 7 days. Although no significant changes were noticed in the levels of retinol, the α-tocopherol levels continuously increased with normal physiological changes throughout pregnancy. Lower retinol levels were associated with the higher incidence of anaemia, whereas higher levels of retinol and lower levels of α-tocopherol were associated with higher platelet count.

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Differential Effects of MitoVitE, α-Tocopherol and Trolox on Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Function and Inflammatory Signalling Pathways in Endothelial Cells Cultured under Conditions Mimicking Sepsis

Minter BE, Lowes DA, Webster NR, Galley HF

Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Feb 26;9(3). pii: E195. doi: 10.3390/antiox9030195.

Abstract

Sepsis is a life-threatening response to infection associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated differential effects of three forms of vitamin E, which accumulate in different cellular compartments, on oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, mRNA and protein expression profiles associated with the human Toll-like receptor (TLR) -2 and -4 pathways. Human endothelial cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/peptidoglycan G (PepG) to mimic sepsis, MitoVitE, α-tocopherol, or Trolox. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, mitochondrial membrane potential and metabolic activity were measured. NFκB-P65, total and phosphorylated inhibitor of NFκB alpha (NFκBIA), and STAT-3 in nuclear extracts, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production in culture supernatants and cellular mRNA expression of 32 genes involved in Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 pathways were measured. Exposure to LPS/PepG caused increased total radical production (p = 0.022), decreased glutathione ratio (p = 0.016), reduced membrane potential and metabolic activity (both p < 0.0001), increased nuclear NFκB-P65 expression (p = 0.016) and increased IL-6/8 secretion (both p < 0.0001). MitoVitE, α- tocopherol and Trolox were similar in reducing oxidative stress, NFκB activation and interleukin secretion. MitoVitE had widespread downregulatory effects on gene expression. Despite differences in site of actions, all forms of vitamin E were protective under conditions mimicking sepsis. These results challenge the concept that protection inside mitochondria provides better protection.

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MPOB exploring palm oil-based MCT as anti-viral agent to combat coronavirus

The Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) is exploring palm oil-based medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) as an anti-viral property, with the aim to boost the immune system to protect from the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) attack, director-general Dr Ahmad Parveez Ghulam Kadir said.

According to Ahmad Parveez, there were some Chinese experts who had engaged with MPOB to seek collaborative study related to palm tocotrienols’ possible effect on human immunity, which is now being widely discussed to prevent the coronavirus infection.

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Tocotrienol-rich vitamin E improves diabetic nephropathy and persists 6-9 months after washout: a phase IIa randomized controlled trial

Tan GCJ, Tan SMQ, Phang SCW, Ng YT, Ng EY, Ahmad B, Palamisamy UDM, Kadir KA

Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Dec 25;10:2042018819895462. doi: 10.1177/2042018819895462. eCollection 2019.

Abstract

Chronic hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus increases oxidative stress and inflammation which contributes to long-term diabetic kidney disease. Tocotrienol-rich vitamin E, as Tocovid, has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation to ameliorate diabetes in rat models and human subjects. In this prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 54 patients (duration = 18.4 years, HbA1c = 8.8%) with diabetic nephropathy were randomized to receive Tocovid 200 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure HbA1c, serum creatinine, estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and thromboxane-B2. Patients were reassessed 6-9 months post-washout. After 12 weeks of supplementation, Tocovid significantly decreased serum creatinine levels (mean difference: -3.3 ± 12.6 versus 5.4 ± 14.2, p = 0.027) and significantly increase eGFR (mean difference: 1.5 ± 7.6 versus -2.9 ± 8.0, p = 0.045) compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in HbA1c, blood pressure, and other parameters. Subgroup analysis revealed that in patients with low serum vitamin E concentrations at baseline, Tocovid reduced serum creatinine, eGFR, and VCAM-1 significantly. After 6-9 months of washout, persistent difference in serum creatinine remained between groups (mean difference: 0.82 ± 8.33 versus 11.26 ± 15.47, p = 0.031), but not eGFR. Tocovid at 400 mg/day significantly improved renal function in 12 weeks of supplementation, as assessed by serum creatinine and eGFR, which remained significant 6-9 months post-washout.

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