Effects of tocotrienol supplementation in Friedreich’s ataxia: A model of oxidative stress pathology

Bolotta A, Pini A, Abruzzo PM, Ghezzo A, Modesti A, Gamberi T, Ferreri C, Bugamelli F, Fortuna F, Vertuani S, Manfredini S, Zucchini C, Marini M

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2019 Dec 3:1535370219890873. doi: 10.1177/1535370219890873.

Abstract Friedreich’s ataxia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired mitochondrial function, resulting in oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed at evaluating whether tocotrienol, a phytonutrient that diffuses easily in tissues with saturated fatty layers, could complement the current treatment with idebenone, a quinone analogue with antioxidant properties. Five young Friedreich’s ataxia patients received a low-dose tocotrienol supplementation (5 mg/kg/day), while not discontinuing idebenone treatment. Several oxidative stress markers and biological parameters related to oxidative stress were evaluated at the time of initiation of treatment and 2 and 12 months post-treatment. Some oxidative stressrelated parameters and some inflammation indices were altered in Friedreich’s ataxia patients taking idebenone alone and tended to be normal values following tocotrienol supplementation; likewise, a cardiac magnetic resonance study showed some improvement following one-year tocotrienol treatment. The pathway by which tocotrienol affects the Nrf2 modulation of hepcidin gene expression, a peptide involved in iron handling and in inflammatory responses, is viewed in the light of the disruption of the iron intracellular distribution and of the Nrf2 anergy characterizing Friedreich’s ataxia. This research provides a suitable model to analyze the efficacy of therapeutic strategies able to counteract the excess free radicals in Friedreich’s ataxia, and paves the way to long-term clinical studies.

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Plasma versus Erythrocyte Vitamin E in Renal Transplant Recipients, and Duality of Tocopherol Species

Sotomayor CG, Rodrigo R, Gomes-Neto AW, Gormaz JG, Pol RA, Minović I, Eggersdorfer ML, Vos M, Riphagen IJ, de Borst MH, Nolte IM, Berger SP, Navis GJ, Bakker SJL

Nutrients. 2019 Nov 19;11(11). pii: E2821. doi: 10.3390/nu11112821.

Abstract

Redox imbalance is an adverse on-going phenomenon in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Vitamin E has important antioxidant properties that counterbalance its deleterious effects. However, plasma vitamin E affinity with lipids challenges interpretation of its levels. To test the hypothesis that erythrocyte membranes represent a lipids-independent specimen to estimate vitamin E status, we performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of adult RTR (n = 113) recruited in a university setting (2015-2018). We compared crude and total lipids-standardized linear regression-derived coefficients of plasma and erythrocyte tocopherol species in relation to clinical and laboratory parameters. Strongly positive associations of fasting lipids with plasma tocopherol became inverse, rather than absent, in total lipids-standardized analyses, indicating potential overadjustment. Whilst, no variables from the lipids domain were associated with the tocopherol species measured from erythrocyte specimens. In relation to inflammatory status and clinical parameters with antioxidant activity, we found associations in directions that are consistent with either beneficial or adverse effects concerning α- or γ-tocopherol, respectively. In conclusion, erythrocytes offer a lipids-independent alternative to estimate vitamin E status and investigate its relationship with parameters over other biological domains. In RTR, α- and γ-tocopherol may serve as biomarkers of relatively lower or higher vulnerability to oxidative stress and inflammation, noticeably in opposite directions.

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Vitamin e-loaded membrane dialyzers reduce hemodialysis inflammaging

Sepe V, Gregorini M, Rampino T, Esposito P, Coppo R, Galli F, Libetta C

BMC Nephrol. 2019 Nov 15;20(1):412. doi: 10.1186/s12882-019-1585-6.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Inflammaging is a persistent, low-grade, sterile, nonresolving inflammatory state, associated with the senescence of the immune system. Such condition downregulates both innate and adaptive immune responses during chronic disorders as type II diabetes, cancer and hemodialysis, accounting for their susceptibility to infections, malignancy and resistance to vaccination. Aim of this study was to investigate hemodialysis inflammaging, by evaluating changes of several hemodialysis treatments on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 activity and nitric oxide formation.

METHODS:

We conducted a randomized controlled observational crossover trial. Eighteen hemodialysis patients were treated with 3 different hemodialysis procedures respectively: 1) Low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis, 2) Low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis with vitamin E - loaded dialyzers, and 3) Hemodialfitration. The control group consisted of 14 hospital staff healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected from all 18 hemodialysis patients just after the long interdialytic interval, at the end of each hemodialysis treatment period.

RESULTS:

Hemodialysis kynurenine and kynurenine/L - tryptophan blood ratio levels were significantly higher, when compared to the control group, indicating an increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 activity in hemodialysis patients. At the end of the low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis with vitamin E - loaded dialyzers period, L - tryptophan serum levels remained unchanged vs both low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis and hemodialfitration. Kynurenine levels instead decreased, resulting in a significant reduction of kynurenine/L - tryptophan blood ratio and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 activity, when matched to both low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis and HDF respectively. Serum nitric oxide control group levels, were significantly lower when compared to all hemodialysis patient groups. Interestingly, low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis with vitamin E - loaded dialyzers nitric oxide serum levels from venous line blood samples taken 60 min after starting the hemodialysis session were significantly lower vs serum taken simultaneously from the arterial blood line.

CONCLUSIONS:

The treatment with more biocompatible hemodialysis procedure as low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis with vitamin E - loaded dialyzers, reduced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 activity and nitric oxide formation when compared to both low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis and hemodialfitration. These data suggest that low-flux bicarbonate hemodialysis with vitamin E - loaded dialyzers lowering hemodialysis inflammaging, could be associated to changes of proinflammatory signalling a regulated molecular level.

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Investigation of the curative effects of palm vitamin E tocotrienols on autoimmune arthritis disease in vivo

Zainal Z, Rahim AA, Radhakrishnan AK, Chang SK, Khaza'ai H

Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 14;9(1):16793. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-53424-7.

Abstract

The tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil contains vitamin E, which possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic joint inflammatory disease characterised by severe joint pain, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion owing to the effects of various pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of TRF in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Arthritis was induced by a single intradermal injection of collagen type II in Dark Agouti (DA) rats. Rats were then treated with or without TRF by oral gavage from day 28 after the first collagen injection. Arthritic rats supplemented with TRF showed decreased articular index scores, ankle circumferences, paw volumes, and radiographic scores when compared with untreated rats. The untreated arthritic rats showed higher plasma C-reactive protein levels (p < 0.05) and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines than arthritic rats fed TRF. Moreover, there was a marked reduction in the severity of histopathological changes observed in arthritic rats treated with TRF compared with that in untreated arthritic rats. Overall, the results show that TRF had beneficial effects in this rat model of RA.

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Therapeutic effect of Vitamin E in preventing bone loss: An evidence-based review

Nazrun Shuid A, Das S, Mohamed IN

Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Nov;89(5-6):357-370. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000566.

Abstract

The present review explored the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of vitamin E, which has protective action against osteoporosis. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the published bone studies on vitamin E. The studies included inflammatory or immunology-related parameters. Medline and Scopus databases were searched for relevant studies published from 2005 till 2015. Research articles published in English and confined to the effect of vitamin E on bone were included. It is pertinent to mention that these studies took into consideration inflammatory or immunology parameters including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS), serum amyloid A (SAA), e-selection and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). An extended literature search yielded 127 potentially relevant articles with seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Another recent article was added with the total number accounting to eight. All these included literature comprised five animal studies, one in-vitro study and two human studies. These studies demonstrated that vitamin E, especially tocotrienol, was able to alleviate IL-1, IL-6, RANKL, iNOS and hs-CRP levels in relation to bone metabolism. In conclusion, vitamin E exerts its anti-osteoporotic actions via its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

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Gamma-tocopherol ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced hepatic inflammation associated with NLRP3 inflammasome in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

Lee H, Lim Y

Nutr Res Pract. 2019 Oct;13(5):377-383. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2019.13.5.377.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Hyperglycemia-induced hepatic damage has been recognized as one of the major cause of complications in diabetes. Hepatic complications are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetes. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that gamma-tocopherol (GT) supplementation ameliorates NLRP3 inflammasome associated hepatic inflammation in diabetes.

MATERIALS/METHODS:

Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg. BW) in ICR mice. All mice were fed with a control diet (AIN-76A). After diabetes was induced (fasting glucose level ≥ 250 mg/dL), the mice were treated with tocopherol-stripped corn oil or GT-supplemented (35 mg/kg) corn oil, respectively, by gavage for 2 weeks.

RESULTS:

GT supplementation reduced fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic mice relative to non-treated diabetic mice. Moreover, GT supplementation ameliorated hyperglycemia-induced hepatic damage by regulation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome associated inflammation represented by NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain, caspase-1, nuclear factor-κB pathway as well as oxidative stress demonstrated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1, catalase and glutathione-dependent peroxidase in diabetic mice.

CONCLUSION:

The findings suggested that GT supplementation ameliorated hepatic damage by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, GT could be a beneficial nutrient that can ameliorate inflammatory responses associated with NLRP3 inflammasome in hyperglycemia-induced hepatic damage.

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Vitamin E protects against monosodium glutamate-induced acute liver injury and hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations in rats

Eid RA, Al-Shraim M, Zaki MS, Kamar SS, Abdel Latif NS, Negm S, Al-Ani B, Haidara MA

Ultrastruct Pathol. 2019;43(4-5):199-208. doi: 10.1080/01913123.2019.1673860.

Abstract

Food additives such as nitrates and nitrites, and monosodium glutamate (MSG) used in the food industry increase the risk of certain cancers and inflict damage to vital organs. We sought to determine whether the antioxidant vitamin E can protect against liver injuries induced by a toxic dose of MSG in a rat model of MSG-induced acute liver injury. The model group of rats received a daily dose of MSG (4 gm/kg) for 7 days, whereas the protective groups were either received a 100 mg/kg vitamin E plus MSG or 300 mg/kg vitamin E plus MSG for 7 days. Rats were then sacrificed at day 8. Transmission and light microscopy images revealed substantial liver tissue damage induced by MSG in the model group as demonstrated by apoptotic hepatocytes with Pyknotic nuclei and irregular nuclear membrane, and cytoplasm displayed many vacuoles, swollen mitochondria, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, dilated blood sinusoids and bundles of collagen fibers in extracellular space. Treatment of the model group with vitamin E showed a substantial protection of liver tissue and hepatocellular architecture by 300 mg/kg vitamin E compared to a partial protection by 100 mg/kg vitamin E. In addition, MSG significantly (p < .05) modulated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which were significantly (p < .05) protected with vitamin E. Thus, vitamin E at 300 mg/kg effectively protects against MSG-induced acute liver injury in rats, possibly via the inhibition of inflammation, and up-regulation of endogenous antioxidants.

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Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Metabolic Properties of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols: Clinical Implications for Vitamin E Supplementation in Diabetic Kidney Disease

Di Vincenzo A, Tana C, El Hadi H, Pagano C, Vettor R, Rossato M

nt J Mol Sci. 2019 Oct 15;20(20). pii: E5101. doi: 10.3390/ijms20205101.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by the development of vascular complications associated with high morbidity and mortality and the consequent relevant costs for the public health systems. Diabetic kidney disease is one of these complications that represent the main cause of end-stage renal disease in Western countries. Hyperglycemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress contribute to its physiopathology, and several investigations have been performed to evaluate the role of antioxidant supplementation as a complementary approach for the prevention and control of diabetes and associated disturbances. Vitamin E compounds, including different types of tocopherols and tocotrienols, have been considered as a treatment to tackle major cardiovascular outcomes in diabetic subjects, but often with conflicting or even negative results. However, their effects on diabetic nephropathy are even less clear, despite several intervention studies that showed the improvement of renal parameters after supplementation in patients with diabetic kidney disease. Then we performed a review of the literature about the role of vitamin E supplementation on diabetic nephropathy, also describing the underlying antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and metabolic mechanisms to evaluate the possible use of tocopherols and tocotrienols in clinical practice.

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α-Tocopherol preserves cardiac function by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in ischemia/reperfusion injury

Wallert M, Ziegler M, Wang X, Maluenda A, Xu X, Yap ML, Witt R, Giles C, Kluge S, Hortmann M, Zhang J, Meikle P, Lorkowski S, Peter K

Redox Biol. 2019 Sep;26:101292. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101292.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and new treatment strategies are highly sought-after. Paradoxically, reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium, as achieved with early percutaneous intervention, results in substantial damage to the heart (ischemia/reperfusion injury) caused by cell death due to aggravated inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. Chronic therapy with vitamin E is not effective in reducing the cardiovascular event rate, presumably through failing to reduce atherosclerotic plaque instability. Notably, acute treatment with vitamin E in patients suffering a MI has not been systematically investigated.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We applied alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH), the strongest anti-oxidant form of vitamin E, in murine cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 60 min. α-TOH significantly reduced infarct size, restored cardiac function as measured by ejection fraction, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and stroke volume, and prevented pathological changes as assessed by state-of-the-art strain and strain-rate analysis. Cardioprotective mechanisms identified, include a decreased infiltration of neutrophils into cardiac tissue and a systemic anti-inflammatory shift from Ly6Chigh to Ly6Clow monocytes. Furthermore, we found a reduction in myeloperoxidase expression and activity, as well as a decrease in reactive oxygen species and the lipid peroxidation markers phosphatidylcholine (PC) (16:0)-9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) and PC(16:0)-13-HODE) within the infarcted tissue.

CONCLUSION:

Overall, α-TOH inhibits ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced oxidative and inflammatory responses, and ultimately preserves cardiac function. Therefore, our study provides a strong incentive to test vitamin E as an acute therapy in patients suffering a MI.

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Tocopherols and Tocotrienols Are Bioavailable in Rats and Primarily Excreted in Feces as the Intact Forms and 13′-Carboxychromanol Metabolites

Liu KY, Jiang Q

J Nutr. 2019 Sep 9. pii: nxz217. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz217.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Vitamin E α-, γ-, or δ-tocopherol (αT, γT, δT) and γ- or δ-tocotrienol (γTE, δTE) are metabolized to hydroxychromanols and carboxychromanols including 13′-carboxychromanol (13′-COOH), 11′-COOH, and carboxyethyl hydroxychroman (CEHC), some of which have unique bioactivities compared with the vitamers. However, the bioavailability of these metabolites has not been well characterized.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of vitamin E forms and metabolites in rats.

METHODS:

Six-week-old male Wistar rats received 1-time gavage of γT-rich tocopherols (50 mg/kg) containing γT/δT/αT (57.7%, 21.9%, and 10.9%, respectively) or δTE-rich tocotrienols (35 mg/kg) containing δTE/γTE (8:1). We quantified the time course of vitamin E forms and metabolites in the plasma and their 24-h excretion to the urine and feces. The general linear model repeated measure was used for analyses of the PK data.

RESULTS:

In the rats’ plasma, Cmax of γT or δTE was 25.6 ± 9.1 μM (Tmax = 4 h) or 16.0 ± 2.3 μM (Tmax = 2 h), respectively, and sulfated CEHCs and sulfated 11′-COOHs were the predominant metabolites with Cmax of 0.4-0.5 μM (Tmax ∼5-7 h) or ∼0.3 μM (Tmax at 4.7 h), respectively. In 24-h urine, 2.7% of γT and 0.7% of δTE were excreted as conjugated CEHCs. In the feces, 17-45% of supplemented vitamers were excreted as unmetabolized forms and 4.9-9.2% as unconjugated carboxychromanols, among which 13′-COOHs constituted ∼50% of total metabolites and the amount of δTE-derived 13′-COOHs was double that of 13′-COOH derived from γT.

CONCLUSIONS:

PK data of vitamin E forms in rats reveal that γT, δT, γTE, and δTE are bioavailable in the plasma and are mainly excreted as unmetabolized forms and long-chain metabolites including 13′-COOHs in feces, with more metabolites from tocotrienols than from tocopherols.

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