Antagonistic effect of vitamin E on nAl2O3-induced exacerbation of Th2 and Th17-mediated allergic asthma via oxidative stress

Cui H, Huang J, Lu M, Zhang Q, Qin W, Zhao Y, Lu X, Zhang J, Xi Z, Li R

Environ Pollut. 2019 Sep;252(Pt B):1519-1531. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.06.092. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Abstract

Some basic research has shown that nanomaterials can aggravate allergic asthma. However, its potential mechanism is insufficient. Based on the research that alumina nanopowder (nAl2O3) has been reported to cause lung tissue damage, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between nAl2O3 and allergic asthma as well as its molecular mechanism. In this study, Balb/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) to construct the allergic asthma model while intratracheally administered 0.5, 5 or 50 mg kg-1·day-1 nAl2O3 for 3 weeks. It was observed that exposure to nAl2O3 exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway remodeling, and inflammation cell infiltration, leading to lung function damage in mice. Results revealed that nAl2O3 could increase ROS levels and decrease GSH levels in lung tissue, promote the increases of the T-IgE, TGF-β, IL-1β and IL-6 levels, stimulate the overexpression of transcription factors GATA-3 and RORγt, decrease the levels of IFN-γ and IL-10 and increase the levels of IL-4 and IL-17A, resulting in the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 immune responses. In addition, antioxidant Vitamin E (Vit E) could alleviate asthma-like symptoms through blocking oxidative stress. The study displayed that exposure of nAl2O3 deteriorated allergic asthma through promoting the imbalances of Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17.

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Oral Supplementation of Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Alleviates Severity of Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

Saw TY, Malik NA, Lim KP, Teo CWL, Wong ESM, Kong SC, Fong CW, Petkov J, Yap WN

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2019;65(4):318-327. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.65.318.

Abstract

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by damaged colonic mucosa and submucosa layers that are caused by excessive inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress. This study aimed to examine the use of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) in mitigating damages caused by UC on the colon epithelium. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC mice were treated with vehicle control, TRF, alpha-tocopherol (αTP) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Observable clinical signs, quality of stool, histopathological scoring, inflammatory and oxidative markers were assessed. Vitamin E levels of colons and plasma were quantified. Oral supplementation of TRF significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced UC by lowering the disease activity index (DAI) and histopathological inflammatory scoring. TRF also attenuated the DSS-induced enlargement of spleen and shortening of the colon. TRF has demonstrated marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties indicated by the attenuation of DSS-induced upregulation of inflammation and oxidative stress markers including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and pNF-κB. These improvements were similar to that of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) treatment. In contrast, αTP did not demonstrate evident clinical and histopathological improvements. The superior protective effect of TRF may be ascribed to the preferential absorption of TRF by the gut mucosa. TRF alleviated the signs and symptoms of acute UC in murine model via the reduction of local inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress. These effects suggested that TRF could serve as a gut health supplement for preventive measures for UC condition in patients.

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The effect of omega-3 and vitamin E on oxidative stress and inflammation: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Moosavian SP, Arab A, Mehrabani S, Moradi S, Nasirian M

Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Aug 23:1-11. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000599. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E on oxidative stress and inflammation, but their findings are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis is to elucidate the overall effects of co-supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E on oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods: We searched titles, abstracts, and keywords of relevant articles indexed in PubMed, ISI, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases up to December 2018 to identify eligible RCT studies. Random effects model was used to estimate the pooled effect of co-supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E on oxidative stress and inflammation. Results:Overall, 7 RCTs with 504 participants were included in this meta-analysis. We found that co-supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E decreased hs-CRP (weighed mean difference (WMD) = -2.15 mg/L; 95% CI: -3.40, -0.91 mg/L; P < 0.001) concentrations and increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (WMD = 92.87 mmol/L; 95% CI: 31.97, 153.77 mmol/L; P = 0.03), and nitric oxide levels (NO) (WMD: 6.95 μmol/L; 95% CI: 3.86, 10.04, P < 0.001) compared with control group. Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E had no significant effect on malondialdehyde (MDA) (WMD: 1.54 mmol/L; 95% CI: -1.29, 4.36; P = 0.196), and glutathione (GSH) (WMD: 20.87 mmol/L; 95% CI: -20.04, 61.6, P = 0.31) levels. Conclusion: The present meta-analysis found that omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation significantly decreased hs-CRP and increased NO and TAC, although it had no significant effect on MDA and GSH.

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Synthesis of Daidzein Glycosides, α-Tocopherol Glycosides, Hesperetin Glycosides by Bioconversion and Their Potential for Anti-Allergic Functional-Foods and Cosmetics

Fujitaka Y, Hamada H, Uesugi D, Kuboki A, Shimoda K, Iwaki T, Kiriake Y, Saikawa T

Molecules. 2019 Aug 16;24(16). pii: E2975. doi: 10.3390/molecules24162975.

Abstract

Daidzein is a common isoflavone, having multiple biological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-allergy, and anti-aging. α-Tocopherol is the tocopherol isoform with the highest vitamin E activity including anti-allergic activity and anti-cancer activity. Hesperetin is a flavone, which shows potent anti-inflammatory effects. These compounds have shortcomings, i.e., water-insolubility and poor absorption after oral administration. The glycosylation of bioactive compounds can enhance their water-solubility, physicochemical stability, intestinal absorption, and biological half-life, and improve their bio- and pharmacological properties. They were transformed by cultured Nicotiana tabacum cells to 7-β-glucoside and 7-β-gentiobioside of daidzein, and 3′- and 7-β-glucosides, 3′,7-β-diglucoside, and 7-β-gentiobioside of hesperetin. Daidzein and α-tocopherol were glycosylated by galactosylation with β-glucosidase to give 4′- and 7-β-galactosides of daidzein, which were new compounds, and α-tocopherol 6-β-galactoside. These nine glycosides showed higher anti-allergic activity, i.e., inhibitory activity toward histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, than their respective aglycones. In addition, these glycosides showed higher tyrosinase inhibitory activity than the corresponding aglycones. Glycosylation of daidzein, α-tocopherol, and hesperetin greatly improved their biological activities.

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The Effects of Annatto Tocotrienol Supplementation on Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in an Animal Model of Osteoarthritis Induced by Monosodium Iodoacetate

Chin KY, Wong SK, Japar Sidik FZ, Abdul Hamid J, Abas NH, Mohd Ramli ES, Afian Mokhtar S, Rajalingham S, Ima Nirwana S

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Aug 13;16(16). pii: E2897. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16162897.

Abstract

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease which primarily affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bones. Since there is an underlying localized inflammatory component in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, compounds like tocotrienol with anti-inflammatory properties may be able to retard its progression. This study aimed to determine the effects of oral tocotrienol supplementation on the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in a rat model of osteoarthritis induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (three-month-old) were randomized into five groups. Four groups were induced with osteoarthritis (single injection of MIA at week 0) and another served as the sham group. Three of the four groups with osteoarthritis were supplemented with annatto tocotrienol at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day orally for five weeks. At week 5, all rats were sacrificed, and their tibial-femoral joints were harvested for analysis. The results indicated that the groups which received annatto tocotrienol at 100 and 150 mg/kg/day had lower histological scores and cartilage remodeling markers. Annatto tocotrienol at 150 mg/kg/day significantly lowered the osteocalcin levels and osteoclast surface of subchondral bone. In conclusion, annatto tocotrienol may potentially retard the progression of osteoarthritis. Future studies to confirm its mechanism of joint protection should be performed.

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α-Tocopherol preserves cardiac function by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in ischemia/reperfusion injury

Wallert M, Ziegler M, Wang X, Maluenda A, Xu X, Yap ML, Witt R, Giles C, Kluge S, Hortmann M, Zhang J, Meikle P, Lorkowski S, Peter K

Redox Biol. 2019 Aug 6;26:101292. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101292. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and new treatment strategies are highly sought-after. Paradoxically, reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium, as achieved with early percutaneous intervention, results in substantial damage to the heart (ischemia/reperfusion injury) caused by cell death due to aggravated inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. Chronic therapy with vitamin E is not effective in reducing the cardiovascular event rate, presumably through failing to reduce atherosclerotic plaque instability. Notably, acute treatment with vitamin E in patients suffering a MI has not been systematically investigated.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We applied alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH), the strongest anti-oxidant form of vitamin E, in murine cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 60 min. α-TOH significantly reduced infarct size, restored cardiac function as measured by ejection fraction, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and stroke volume, and prevented pathological changes as assessed by state-of-the-art strain and strain-rate analysis. Cardioprotective mechanisms identified, include a decreased infiltration of neutrophils into cardiac tissue and a systemic anti-inflammatory shift from Ly6Chigh to Ly6Clow monocytes. Furthermore, we found a reduction in myeloperoxidase expression and activity, as well as a decrease in reactive oxygen species and the lipid peroxidation markers phosphatidylcholine (PC) (16:0)-9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) and PC(16:0)-13-HODE) within the infarcted tissue.

CONCLUSION:

Overall, α-TOH inhibits ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced oxidative and inflammatory responses, and ultimately preserves cardiac function. Therefore, our study provides a strong incentive to test vitamin E as an acute therapy in patients suffering a MI.

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Beneficial effects of vitamin E on radioiodine induced gastrointestinal damage: an experimental and pathomorphological study.

Yumusak N, Sadic M, Akbulut A, Aydinbelge FN, Koca G, Korkmaz M

Bratisl Lek Listy. 2019;120(4):263-269. doi: 10.4149/BLL_2019_048.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E in the prevention of radioiodine (RAI) induced gastrointestinal damage.

METHOD:

Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Group-1 was untreated control group, Group-2 was orally administered single dose of 111 MBq RAI, and Group-3 was orally administered 111 MBq RAI and 1 mL of oral vitamin EVitamin E was started two days before RAI administration and was continued for five days once daily after RAI. Pathomorphological parameters of gastrointestinal tissues (stomach, small intestines and bowels) were measured using Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining.

RESULTS:

Varying degrees of inflammation, edema, ulcer, mucosal degeneration, necrosis and fibrosis were seen in the stomach, small intestine and bowel tissues of the rats in both study groups and not in the control group. The differences were statistically significant between these groups for all parameters (p < 0.05). The histopathological damage in the vitamin E treated group was significantly less than the damage in the RAI only group (p < 0.05 for all pathomorphological parameters).

CONCLUSION:

The results of this study showed that vitamin E has a radioprotective property with antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effects protecting against gastrointestinal damage caused by radioiodine.

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The vitamin E derivative garcinoic acid from Garcinia kola nut seeds attenuates the inflammatory response

Wallert M, Bauer J, Kluge S, Schmölz L, Chen YC, Ziegler M, Searle AK, Maxones A, Schubert M, Thürmer M, Pein H, Koeberle A, Werz O, Birringer M, Peter K, Lorkowski S

Redox Biol. 2019 Jun;24:101166. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101166. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Abstract

The plant Garcinia kola is used in African ethno-medicine to treat various oxidation- and inflammation-related diseases but its bioactive compounds are not well characterized. Garcinoic acid (GA) is one of the few phytochemicals that have been isolated from Garcinia kola. We investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanol extract of Garcinia kola seeds (NE) and purified GA, as a major phytochemical in these seeds, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and its anti-atherosclerotic potential in high fat diet fed ApoE-/- mice. This study outlines an optimized procedure for the extraction and purification of GA from Garcinia kola seeds with an increased yield and a purity of >99%. We found that LPS-induced upregulation of iNos and Cox2 expression, and the formation of the respective signaling molecules nitric oxide and prostanoids, were significantly diminished by both the NE and GA. In addition, GA treatment in mice decreased intra-plaque inflammation by attenuating nitrotyrosinylation. Further, modulation of lymphocyte sub-populations in blood and spleen have been detected, showing immune regulative properties of GA. Our study provides molecular insights into the anti-inflammatory activities of Garcinia kola and reveals GA as promising natural lead for the development of multi-target drugs to treat inflammation-driven diseases.

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Evidence for antinociceptive effects of combined administration of vitamin E and celecoxib in tail-flick and formalin test in male rats

Shamsi Meymandi M, Sepehri G, Izadi G, Zamiri Z

Pharmacol Rep. 2019 Jun;71(3):457-464. doi: 10.1016/j.pharep.2019.02.005. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E co-administration with celecoxib in thermal and inflammatory pain in two model of pain assessment including thermal tail flick test of acute pain and formalin induced inflammatory model in adult male rats.

METHODS:

Seventy two male Wistar rats were divided into a vehicle received intraperitoneally olive oil, indomethacin (20 mg/kg), vitamin E(100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), celecoxib (3, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) groups, and combination groups received the combination of vitamin E (100 and 200 mg/kg) and celecoxib (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg). All drugs were dissolved in olive oil. Antinociceptive effect in tail-flick was measured using Area Under Curve (AUC) of responses and Maximum Possible Effect (%MPE) and pain score was used for antinociceptive response in formalin test.

RESULTS:

Vitamin E and celecoxib changed time course of pain scores in a dose related manner in formalin test but not in tail-flick test. Vitamin E (200 mg/kg) had no effect and merely 60 mg/kg of celecoxib increased %MPE and AUC in tail-flick. The combination of vitamin E(100 or 200 mg/kg) with celecoxib (3 or 10 mg/kg) decreased pain scores compared to vehicle in both phases of formalin test, while in chronic phase (II) the pain scores of combination groups were also decreased compared to vitamin E and celecoxib. However, in tail-flick test the combination of ineffective doses of vitamin E (200 mg/kg) and celecoxib (10 and 30 mg/kg) increased %MPE and AUC compared to vehicle but not compared to celecoxib or vitamin E.

CONCLUSIONS:

Vitamin E and celecoxib showed a dose related antinociceptive effect in inflammatory but not in thermal model of acute pain. However the co-administration of vitamin E with celecoxib caused a significant increase in the antinociceptive effect which was similar to indomethacin, as a standard anti-inflammatory drug. So we suggest the concomitant use of vitamin E with celecoxib and other NSAIDs for potentiation of both anti- inflammatory and analgesic response, as well as the reduction of cardiovascular side effects of celecoxib.

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Evidence for antinociceptive effects of combined administration of vitamin E and celecoxib in tail-flick and formalin test in male rats

Shamsi Meymandi M, Sepehri G, Izadi G, Zamiri Z

Pharmacol Rep. 2019 Jun;71(3):457-464. doi: 10.1016/j.pharep.2019.02.005. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E co-administration with celecoxib in thermal and inflammatory pain in two model of pain assessment including thermal tail flick test of acute pain and formalin induced inflammatory model in adult male rats.

METHODS:

Seventy two male Wistar rats were divided into a vehicle received intraperitoneally olive oil, indomethacin (20 mg/kg), vitamin E(100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), celecoxib (3, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) groups, and combination groups received the combination of vitamin E (100 and 200 mg/kg) and celecoxib (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg). All drugs were dissolved in olive oil. Antinociceptive effect in tail-flick was measured using Area Under Curve (AUC) of responses and Maximum Possible Effect (%MPE) and pain score was used for antinociceptive response in formalin test.

RESULTS:

Vitamin E and celecoxib changed time course of pain scores in a dose related manner in formalin test but not in tail-flick test. Vitamin E (200 mg/kg) had no effect and merely 60 mg/kg of celecoxib increased %MPE and AUC in tail-flick. The combination of vitamin E(100 or 200 mg/kg) with celecoxib (3 or 10 mg/kg) decreased pain scores compared to vehicle in both phases of formalin test, while in chronic phase (II) the pain scores of combination groups were also decreased compared to vitamin E and celecoxib. However, in tail-flick test the combination of ineffective doses of vitamin E (200 mg/kg) and celecoxib (10 and 30 mg/kg) increased %MPE and AUC compared to vehicle but not compared to celecoxib or vitamin E.

CONCLUSIONS:

Vitamin E and celecoxib showed a dose related antinociceptive effect in inflammatory but not in thermal model of acute pain. However the co-administration of vitamin E with celecoxib caused a significant increase in the antinociceptive effect which was similar to indomethacin, as a standard anti-inflammatory drug. So we suggest the concomitant use of vitamin E with celecoxib and other NSAIDs for potentiation of both anti- inflammatory and analgesic response, as well as the reduction of cardiovascular side effects of celecoxib.

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