Vitamin E promotes ovine Sertoli cell proliferation by regulation of genes associated with cell division and the cell cycle

Yuefeng Gao, Wei Lu, Luyang Jian, Zoltan Machaty, Hailing Luo

Anim Biotechnol . 2020 Jul 2;1-9. doi: 10.1080/10495398.2020.1788044. Online ahead of print.


The effect of Vitamin E on the proliferation of ovine Sertoli cells was investigated. Sertoli cells were isolated and treated with various amounts of Vitamin E (0 μM, 400 μM, 800 μM, 1000 μM, 1200 μM, 1400 μM and 1600 μM) for 24 h. We found that at the concentration of 1200 μM, Vitamin E promoted Sertoli cell proliferation very effectively. It also increased the proportion of cells in the G1 phase while reduced that in the S and G2/M phases, suggesting that its effect on Sertoli cell proliferation is achieved by enhancing progression through the cell cycle. In addition, Vitamin E significantly up-regulated the transcript level of the PDPN, BMP6, AMPKα, GSK3β, Myc, and CDK6 genes and down-regulated that of PPARγ, Cyclin B1 and CDK4 as determined by qRT-PCR. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of BMP6 and PDPN was also upregulated at the protein level, in accordance with the results of the qRT-PCR. Taken together, Vitamin E promoted Sertoli cell proliferation by affecting the expression of genes that regulate cell division and the cell cycle; this indicates that it can have a positive effect on sheep reproductive performance.

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Infant Rhesus Macaque Brain α-Tocopherol Stereoisomer Profile Is Differentially Impacted by the Source of α-Tocopherol in Infant Formula

Matthew J Kuchan, Katherine M Ranard, Priyankar Dey, Sookyoung Jeon, Geoff Y Sasaki, Karen J Schimpf, Richard S Bruno, Martha Neuringer, John W Erdman

J Nutr . 2020 Jul 2;nxaa174. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxaa174. Online ahead of print.


Background: α-Tocopherol (αT) in its natural form [2’R, 4’R, 8’R αT (RRR-αT)] is more bioactive than synthetic α-tocopherol (all rac-αT). All rac-αT is widely used in infant formulas, but its accretion in formula-fed infant brain is unknown.

Objective: We sought to compare αT and stereoisomer status in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) fed infant formula (RRR-αT or all rac-αT) with a reference group fed a mixed diet of breast milk and maternal diet.

Methods: From 1 d after birth until 6 mo of age, infants (n = 23) were either nursery reared and exclusively fed 1 of 2 formulas by staff personnel or were community housed with their mothers and consumed a mixed reference diet of breast milk (69 mL/d at 6 mo) transitioning to monkey diet at ∼2 mo (MF; n = 8). Formulas contained either 21 μmol RRR-αT/L (NAT-F; n = 8) or 30 μmol all rac-αT/L (SYN-F; n = 7). Total αT and αT stereoisomers were analyzed in breast milk at 2, 4, and 6 mo and in monkey plasma and liver and 6 brain regions at 6 mo of age. α-Tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP), lipoprotein αT, and urinary α-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman (α-CEHC) were measured. One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc test was used for analysis.

Results: At study termination, plasma, liver, lipoprotein, and brain total αT did not differ between groups. However, the NAT-F-fed group had higher RRR-αT than the SYN-F-fed group (P < 0.01) and the MF group (P < 0.0001) in plasma (1.7- and 2.7-fold) and brain (1.5- and 2.5-fold). Synthetic αT 2R stereoisomers (SYNTH-2R) were generally 3- and 7-fold lower in brain regions of the NAT-F group compared with those of the SYN-F and MF groups (P < 0.05). SYNTH-2R stereoisomers were 2-fold higher in MF than SYN-F (P < 0.0001). The plasma percentage of SYNTH-2R was negatively correlated with the brain percentage of RRR-αT (r = -0.99, P < 0.0001). Brain αT profiles were not explained by α-TTP mRNA or protein expression. Urine α-CEHC was 3 times higher in the NAT-F than in the MF group (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Consumption of infant formulas with natural (NAT-F) compared with synthetic (SYN-F) αT differentially impacted brain αT stereoisomer profiles in infant rhesus macaques. Future studies should assess the functional implications of αT stereoisomer profiles on brain health.

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Inflammatory Diseases and Vitamin E – What Do We Know and Where Do We Go?

Maria Wallert, Lisa Börmel, Stefan Lorkowski

Mol Nutr Food Res . 2020 Jul 21;e2000097. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.202000097. Online ahead of print.


Inflammation-driven diseases and related comorbidities, such as the metabolic syndrome, obesity, fatty liver disease and cardiovascular diseases cause significant global burden. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrients alter inflammatory responses and can therefore make a decisive contribution to the treatment of these diseases. Recently, the inflammasome, a cytosolic multiprotein complex, was identified as a key player in inflammation and the development of various inflammation-mediated disorders, with nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain (NLRP) 3 being the inflammasome of interest. Here we provide an overview about the cellular signaling pathways underlying nuclear factor ‘kappa-light-chain-enhancer’ of activated B-cells (NF-κB)- and NLRP3-mediated inflammatory processes, the pathogenesis of the inflammatory diseases atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); next, we discuss the current state of knowledge for drug-based and dietary-based interventions for treating cardiovascular diseases and NAFLD. To date one of the most important antioxidant in the human diet is vitamin E. Various in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the different forms of vitamin E and also their derivatives have anti-inflammatory activity. Recent publications suggest that vitamin E – and possibly metabolites of vitamin E – are a promising therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory diseases such as NAFLD.

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Effects of Calcium and Annatto Tocotrienol Supplementation on Bone Loss Induced by Pantoprazole in Male Rats

Kok-Yong Chin, Benjamin Ka Seng Thong, Rhivaldy Faahim Kamalulloh, Nur Vaizura Mohamad, Sok Kuan Wong, Azlan Mohd Arlamsyah, Rahma Triliana, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman

Drug Des Devel Ther . 2020 Jul 2;14:2561-2572. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S260565. eCollection 2020.


Purpose: Prolonged use of proton pump inhibitors may cause bone loss, and limited therapeutic agents are available to prevent this skeletal side effect. The combination of annatto tocotrienol, a bone anabolic agent, with calcium presents a novel strategy to prevent bone loss caused by proton pump inhibitors. This study aims to compare the effects of calcium alone and in combination with annatto tocotrienol or vitamin D3 (Caltrate Plus) in preventing bone loss caused by pantoprazole.

Methods: Three-month-old Sprague Dawley male rats (n=30) were randomised into five groups (n=6/group). Bone loss was induced by pantoprazole (3 mg/kg p.o.) in four groups, and they were treated concurrently with either calcium carbonate (77 mg p.o.), calcium carbonate (77 mg p.o.) plus annatto tocotrienol (60 mg/kg p.o.) or Caltrate Plus (31 mg p.o.) for 60 days. The rats were euthanised at the end of the experiment, and their femurs were harvested for X-ray micro-computed tomography, bone cellular histomorphometry and bone mechanical strength analysis.

Results: Pantoprazole caused significant deterioration of trabecular bone microstructures but did not affect other skeletal indices. Calcium supplementation with or without annatto tocotrienol prevented the deterioration of trabecular microstructures at the femur but did not improve other skeletal indices. Annatto tocotrienol did not enhance the skeletal actions of calcium, whereas Caltrate Plus did not affect the bone health indices in these rats.

Conclusion: Calcium supplementation per se can prevent the deterioration of bone trabecular microstructures in rats receiving long-term treatment of pantoprazole.

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Tocol Prophylaxis for Total-body Irradiation: A Proteomic Analysis in Murine Model

Elliot Rosen, Oluseyi O Fatanmi, Stephen Y Wise, V Ashutosh Rao, Vijay K Singh

Health Phys . 2020 Jul;119(1):12-20. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001221.


The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in mouse jejunum protein expression in response to prophylactic administration of two promising tocols, γ-tocotrienol (GT3) and α-tocopherol succinate (TS), as radiation countermeasures before irradiation to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of their radioprotective efficacy. Mice were administered GT3 or TS (200 mg kg) subcutaneously 24 h prior to exposure to 11 Gy Co γ-radiation, a supralethal dose for mice. Jejunum was harvested 24 h post-irradiation. Results of the two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), coupled with mass spectrometry, and advanced bioinformatics tools suggest that the tocols have a corresponding impact on expression of 13 proteins as identified by mass spectrometry. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) reveals a network of associated proteins involved in inflammatory response, organismal injury and abnormalities, and cellular development. Relevant signaling pathways including actin cytoskeleton signaling, RhoA signaling, and Rho family GTPase were identified. This study reveals the major proteins, pathways, and networks involved in preventing the radiation-induced injury in gut that may be contributing to enhanced survival.

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Effect of Vitamins D and E on the Proliferation, Viability, and Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells: An In Vitro Study

Lina M Escobar, Zita Bendahan, Andrea Bayona, Jaime E Castellanos, María-Clara González

Int J Dent . 2020 Jul 1;2020:8860840. doi: 10.1155/2020/8860840. eCollection 2020.


Introduction: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamins D and E on the proliferation, morphology, and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs).

Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, hDPSCs were isolated, characterized, and treated with vitamins D and E, individually and in combination, utilizing different doses and treatment periods. Changes in morphology and cell proliferation were evaluated using light microscopy and the resazurin assay, respectively. Osteoblast differentiation was evaluated with alizarin red S staining and expression of RUNX2, Osterix, and Osteocalcin genes using real-time RT-PCR.

Results: Compared with untreated cells, the number of cells significantly reduced following treatment with vitamin D (49%), vitamin E (35%), and vitamins D + E (61%) after 144 h. Compared with cell cultures treated with individual vitamins, cells treated with vitamins D + E demonstrated decreased cell confluence, with more extensive and flatter cytoplasm that initiated the formation of a significantly large number of calcified nodules after 7 days of treatment. After 14 days, treatment with vitamins D, E, and D + E increased the transcription of RUNX2, Osterix, and Osteocalcin genes.

Conclusions: Vitamins D and E induced osteoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs, as evidenced by the decrease in cell proliferation, morphological changes, and the formation of calcified nodules, increasing the expression of differentiation genes. Concurrent treatment with vitamins D + E induces a synergistic effect in differentiation toward an osteoblastic lineage.

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Food for Bone: Evidence for a Role for Delta-Tocotrienol in the Physiological Control of Osteoblast Migration

Lavinia Casati, Francesca Pagani, Roberto Maggi, Francesco Ferrucci, Valeria Sibilia

Int J Mol Sci . 2020 Jun 30;21(13):4661. doi: 10.3390/ijms21134661.


Bone remodeling and repair require osteogenic cells to reach the sites that need to be rebuilt, indicating that stimulation of osteoblast migration could be a promising osteoanabolic strategy. We showed that purified δ-tocotrienol (δ-TT, 10 μg/mL), isolated from commercial palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) fraction, stimulates the migration of both MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and primary human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) as detected by wound healing assay or Boyden chamber assay respectively. The ability of δ-TT to promote MC3T3-E1 cells migration is dependent on Akt phosphorylation detected by Western blotting and involves Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway activation. In fact, δ-TT increased β-catenin transcriptional activity, measured using a Nano luciferase assay and pretreatment with procaine (2 µM), an inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway, reducing the wound healing activity of δ-TT on MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, δ-TT treatment increased the expression of β-catenin specific target genes, such as Osteocalcin and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, involved in osteoblast differentiation and migration, and increased alkaline phosphatase and collagen content, osteoblast differentiation markers. The ability of δ-TT to enhance the recruitment of BMSC, and to promote MC3T3-E1 differentiation and migratory behavior, indicates that δ-TT could be considered a promising natural anabolic compound.

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Studies on the growth inhibiting and non-cytotoxic effects of tocotrienols on selected cancer cell lines

Aleksandra Szulczewska-Remi, Małgorzata Nogala-Kalucka

Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment . Apr-Jun 2020;19(2):139-147. doi: 10.17306/J.AFS.0787.


Background: Tocotrienols found in certain plant oils, like palm, rice bran, grapeseed and annatto seeds, have been reported to possess beneficial properties for humans, including cancer prevention. Since studies on their beneficial effects on human breast cancer cells have been extensively reviewed, the current understanding of how tocotrienols affect other cancer cells deserves further research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative and non-cytotoxic effects of tocotrienols on human hepatoma HepG2 and colon colorectal Caco-2 cell cultures.

Methods: The cells were exposed to alpha-, beta-, gamma- or delta-tocotrienols at various concentrations and the antiproliferative activities were measured using MTS-based CellTiter 96 followed by a methylene blue assay for counting cells to evaluate the potential toxicity.

Results: The research on HepG2 showed statistically similar cytotoxic effects for both beta- and delta-T3 with no effects for alpha- and gamma-T3. Promising results were found for alpha-, beta- and gamma-T3 against CaCo-2.

Conclusions: The exact reasons for the sensitivity of liver cancer cells to tocotrienols are unknown. Inhibition is time and dose-dependent, therefore tocotrienols’ homologs show very high toxic or no effects. Tocotrienols appeared to be effective against colon cancer cells. Still, future investigation is necessary to explain the different mechanism of actions to support the antiproliferative effects of these homologs against colon cancer cells.

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Vitamin E Deficiency: An Under-Recognized Cause of Dystonia and Ataxia Syndrome

Harsh V Gupta, Steven Swank, Vibhash D Sharma

Ann Indian Acad Neurol . May-Jun 2020;23(3):372-374. doi: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_29_20.

A 43-year-old right-handed man was seen in the clinic for an evaluation of progressive gait difficulty. He initially developed tingling in his hands and feet at the age of 30 years. After 3 years of initial symptoms, he developed weakness in his lower distal extremities. His symptoms progressed over the years and he developed unsteady gait, double vision, speech changes, and tremor in his right hand and head. He also complained of diarrhea (five to six loose watery bowel movements a day) and required frequent emergency evaluations for the management of the same. He was found to have colonic dilatation (11.4 cm). His past medical history was significant for jejunal resection at the time of birth. There was no family history of similar neurological problems.

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Melatonin and vitamin E alleviate homocysteine-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis in endothelial cells

Gurkan Aykutoglu, Musa Tartik, Ekrem Darendelioglu, Adnan Ayna, Giyasettin Baydas

Mol Biol Rep . 2020 Jun 26. doi: 10.1007/s11033-020-05607-z. Online ahead of print.


A relationship exists between hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular diseases, although the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely defined. One possibility involves a homocysteine (Hcy)-induced increased oxidative stress. Melatonin (Mel) and vitamin E (vitE) are important anti-oxidants. The main purpose of this study was (1) to compare the effect of treatments with Mel, vitE or both, on Hcy-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and (2) to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Cell proliferation assay was carried out by Water Soluble Tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay kit. Apoptotic index was calculated by TUNEL Assay. Anti-oxidant parameters were studied by measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. mRNA and protein expression levels of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins were studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting experiments respectively. The results showed that treatments with Mel, vitE or Mel + vitE suppressed Hcy-induced cell death, with a higher efficiency for the Mel and Mel + vitE treatments. Our results suggests that the mechanisms by which these anti-oxidants protected endothelial cells include the decrease in ROS and LPO levels, an increase in cell migration, the downregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins Cas 3, Cas 9, Cyt C and Bax and the upregulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl 2. Collectively, these results revealed the protective role of vitE and Mel against Hcy-induced cell apoptosis, which may add insight into therapeutic approaches to Hcy-induced damages.

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