The effect of β-carotene on the mortality of male smokers is modified by smoking and by vitamins C and E: evidence against a uniform effect of nutrient

Hemilä H

J Nutr Sci. 2020 Mar 11;9:e11. doi: 10.1017/jns.2020.3.

Abstract

A previous analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Study on male smokers found that β-carotene supplementation increased the risk of pneumonia 4-fold in those who started smoking at the age of ≥21 years and smoked ≥21 cigarettes/d (a subgroup of 7 % of the study population). The present study hypothesised that β-carotene increases mortality in the same subgroup. The ATBC Study (1985-1993) recruited 29 133 Finnish male smokers (≥5 cigarettes/d) aged 50-69 years. Cox regression models were constructed to estimate the effect of β-carotene supplementation in subgroups. β-Carotene increased mortality (risk ratio 1·56; 95 % CI 1·06, 2·3) in those who started to smoke at ≥21 years and smoked ≥21 cigarettes/d. Within this subgroup, there was strong evidence of further heterogeneity. The effect of β-carotene supplementation was further modified by dietary vitamin C intake, fruit and vegetable intake (P = 0·0004), and by vitamin E supplementation (P = 0·011). Thus, harm from β-carotene was not uniform within the study population. Interactions between β-carotene and vitamins C and E were seen only within a subgroup of 7 % of the ATBC participants, and therefore should not be extrapolated to the general population. Heterogeneity of the β-carotene effect on mortality challenges the validity of previous meta-analyses that have pooled many diverse antioxidants for one single estimate of effect using the assumption that a single estimate equally applies to all antioxidants and all people.

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Actions of annatto-extracted tocotrienol supplementation on obese postmenopausal women: study protocol for a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised trial

Aryaie A, Tinsley G, Lee J, Watkins BA, Moore L, Alhaj-Saleh A, Shankar K, Wood SR, Wang R, Shen CL

BMJ Open. 2020 Mar 8;10(3):e034338. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034338.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Obesity is a major health concern in postmenopausal women, and chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to the development of obesity. Cellular studies and high-fat-diet-induced obese mouse model mimicking obesity show the antiobesity effect of annatto-extracted tocotrienols (TT) with antioxidant capability. We aim to assess the safety and efficacy of TT consumption for lipid-related parameters in obese postmenopausal women.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS:

Eligible obese postmenopausal women will be randomly assigned to placebo group (430 mg olive oil) and TT group (DeltaGold Tocotrienol 70%) for 24 weeks. In the present study, the primary outcome is total/regional fat mass and visceral adipose tissue. The secondary outcomes include lipid profile in serum, mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A in fat tissue, oxylipins and endocannabinoids in plasma and adipose tissue, abundance and composition of intestinal microbiome in faeces, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in serum and leptin in serum. Every participant will be evaluated at 0 (prior to starting intervention) and 24 weeks of intervention, except for serum lipid profile and hs-CRP at 0, 12 and 24 weeks. ‘Intent-to-treat‘ principle is employed for data analysis. Hierarchical linear modelling is used to estimate the effects of dietary TT supplementation while properly accounting for dependency of data and identified covariates. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study to determine dietary TT supplementation on an obese population. If successful, this study will guide the future efficacy TT interventions and TT can be implemented as an alternative for obese population in antiobesity management.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:

This study has been approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock. An informed consent form will be signed by a participant before enrolling in the study. The results from this trial will be actively disseminated through academic conference presentation and peer-reviewed journals.

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Cryptogenic Intracranial Hemorrhagic Strokes Associated with Hypervitaminosis E and Acutely Elevated α-Tocopherol Levels

Pirhadi-Tavandashti N, Imani H, Ebrahimpour-Koujan S, Samavat S, Hakemi MS

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2020 Mar 6:104747. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104747. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Up to 41% of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) are considered cryptogenic despite a thorough investigation to determine etiology. Certain over-the-counter supplements may increase proclivity to bleeding, and we hypothesize that specifically vitamin E may have an association with ICH and acutely elevated serum levels of α-tocopherol. Our aim is to report 3 cases of recently admitted patients with hypervitaminosis E and otherwise cryptogenic ICH.

METHODS:

At our institution between January and December 2018, 179 patients were admitted with ICH with 73 imputed to be “cryptogenic” (without clear etiology as per Structural vascular lesions, Medication, Amyloid angiopathy, Systemic disease, Hypertension, or Undetermined and Hypertension, Amyloid angiopathy, Tumor, Oral anticoagulants, vascular Malformation, Infrequent causes, and Cryptogenic criteria). Of these, we found 3 (4.1%) clearly admitted to consistent use of vitamin E supplementation for which α-tocopherol levels were checked. We describe the clinical presentation and course of these patients and their etiologic and diagnostic evaluations including neuroimaging and α-tocopherol laboratory data.

RESULTS:

All patients in this series were consistently consuming higher than recommended doses of vitamin E and developed acute ICH. The first 2 patients both had subcortical (thalamic) intraparenchymal hemorrhages while the third had an intraventricular hemorrhage. Serum α-tocopherol levels in patient A, B, and C were elevated at 30.8, 46.7, and 23.3 mg/L, respectively (normal range 5.7-19.9 mg/L) with a mean of 33.6 mg/L. No clear alternate etiologies to their ICH could be conclusively determined despite thorough workups.

CONCLUSIONS:

In patients with cryptogenic ICH, clinicians should consider hypervitaminosis E and check serum α-tocopherol level during admission. Reviewing the patient’s pharmacologic history, including over-the-counter supplements such as vitamin E, may help identify its association, and its avoidance in the future may mitigate risk. With its known vitamin K antagonism, hypo-prothrombinemic effect, cytochrome p-450 interaction, and antiplatelet activity, vitamin E may not be as benign as presumed. Its consumption in nonrecommended doses may increase ICH risk, which may be underestimated and under-reported.

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Retinol and α-tocopherol in pregnancy: Establishment of reference intervals and associations with CBC

Liu J, Zhan S, Jia Y, Li Y, Liu Y, Dong Y, Tang G, Li L, Zhai Y, Cao Z

Matern Child Nutr. 2020 Mar 5:e12975. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12975. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Profound physiological changes during pregnancy may affect the requirement of retinol and tocopherol, which are essential micronutrients for the maintenance of maternal health and foetal development. However, the current reference intervals (RIs) of retinol and tocopherol are based on non-pregnant population. In the present study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitation method for serum retinol and α-tocopherol was established and validated. In addition, we established trimester-specific RIs of retinol and α-tocopherol using the data from paired screening test for 31,301 outpatients who participated in the prenatal vitamins A/E evaluation program at our hospital using the Hoffmann method, which is a simple indirect RI estimation method that does not require the recruitment of healthy subjects. Further, to explore the associations between the levels of retinol and α-tocopherol and the parameters of complete blood count (CBC), the results of retinol, α-tocopherol, and CBC of 1,977 pregnant outpatients in the third trimester were analysed. The testing interval between the levels of vitamins and CBC was no more than 7 days. Although no significant changes were noticed in the levels of retinol, the α-tocopherol levels continuously increased with normal physiological changes throughout pregnancy. Lower retinol levels were associated with the higher incidence of anaemia, whereas higher levels of retinol and lower levels of α-tocopherol were associated with higher platelet count.

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Role of α-tocopherol and Lactobacillus plantarum in the alleviation of mercuric chloride-induced testicular atrophy in rat’s model: Implication of molecular mechanisms

Fadda LM, Alhusaini AM, Al-Qahtani QH, Ali HM, Hasan IH

J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2020 Mar 5:e22481. doi: 10.1002/jbt.22481. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

The present work was aimed to evaluate the protective effects of alpha-tocopherol (α-toco) and/or Lactobacillus plantarum (LCB) against testicular atrophy induced by mercuric chloride (MCH). Rats were injected with 5 mg/kg MCH for 5 days consecutively, then treated with 100 mg/kg α-toco and 6 × 1010 CFU 1.8701/kg LCB alone or together for 3 weeks. The MCH elevated serum TNF-α, IL- 6, caspase-3, and testicular malondialdehyde. However, serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testicular messenger RNA of a steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, glutathione level, and superoxide dismutase activity were decreased. Protein expression of Nrf2 was downregulated whereas that of Bax and DNA fragmentation was upregulated in the testicular tissues. Treatment with α-toco and LCB ameliorated the deviated biochemical parameters and improved tissue injury. It was concluded that the combination of LCB and α-toco achieved promising results in the amelioration of MCH-induced testicular atrophy. Nrf2, Bax expressions, and DNA fragmentation are involved in the testicular atrophy induced by MCH.

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Drugs for preventing lung cancer in healthy people

Cortés-Jofré M, Rueda JR, Asenjo-Lobos C, Madrid E, Bonfill Cosp X

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 4;3:CD002141. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002141.pub3.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This is the second update of this Cochrane Review. Some studies have suggested a protective effect of antioxidant nutrients and higher dietary levels of fruits and vegetables on lung cancer.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine whether vitamins and minerals and other potential agents, alone or in combination, reduce lung cancer incidence and lung cancer mortality in healthy populations.

SEARCH METHODS:

We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase from 1974 to May 2019 and screened references included in published studies and reviews.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing vitamins or mineral supplements with placebo, administered to healthy people with the aim of preventing lung cancer.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Four review authors independently selected the trials to be included in the review, assessed their methodological quality and extracted data. For dichotomous outcomes we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and pooled results using the random-effects model. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane’s ‘Risk of bias’ assessment tool and certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach.

MAIN RESULTS:

In this update, we identified three new trials for a total of 12 studies. Six analysed vitamin A, three vitamin C, three combined vitamin D3 + calcium, four vitamin E combined with other products, one selenium supplements and nine studied combinations of two or more products. Four studies included only men and five only women. Vitamin A results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.19; 5 RCTs, 212314 participants; high-certainty evidence) and lung cancer mortality (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.38; 3 RCTs, 190118 participants; high-certainty evidence). But in smokers or asbestos workers vitamin A increases the risk of lung cancer incidence (RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20; 3 RCTs, 43995 participants; high-certainty evidence), lung cancer mortality (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.38; 2 RCTs, 29426 participants; high-certainty evidence) and all-cause mortality (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13; 2 RCTs, 32883 participants; high-certainty evidence). Vitamin A increases the risk of minor side effects, such as yellowing of the skin and minor gastrointestinal symptoms (high-certainty evidence). Vitamin C likely results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.49; 2 RCTs, 14953 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). In women, vitamin C increases the risk of lung cancer incidence (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.95; 1 RCT, 7627 participants; high-certainty evidence). In men, vitamin C results in little to no difference in mortality for lung cancer (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.23; 1 RCT, 7326 participants; high-certainty evidence). Vitamin D + calcium may result in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence in postmenopausal women (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.39 to 2.08; 3 RCTs, 37601 women; low-certainty evidence). Vitamin E results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14; 3 RCTs, 36841 participants; high-certainty evidence) or to lung cancer mortality (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.18; 2 RCTs, 29214 participants; high-certainty evidence), but increases the risk of haemorrhagic strokes (hazard ratio (HR), 1.74, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.91; 1 RCT, 14641 participants; high-certainty evidence). Calcium results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence in postmenopausal women (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.13 to 3.18; 1 RCT, 733 participants) or in risk of renal calculi (RR 1.94, 95% CI 0.20 to 18.57; 1 RCT, 733 participants; low-certainty evidence). Selenium in men results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.54; 1 RCT, 17448 participants; high-certainty evidence) and lung cancer mortality (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.66; 1 RCT, 17448 participants; high-certainty evidence) and increases the risk for grade 1 to 2 dermatitis (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.31; 1 RCT, 17448 participants; high-certainty evidence) and for alopecia (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.53; 1 RCT, 17448 participants; high-certainty evidence). The combination of vitamins A, C, E + selenium + zinc results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.48; 1 RCT, 12741 participants; high-certainty evidence).

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS:

Well-designed RCTs have shown no beneficial effect of supplements for the prevention of lung cancer and lung cancer mortality in healthy people. Vitamin A supplements increase lung cancer incidence and mortality in smokers or persons exposed to asbestos. Vitamin C increases lung cancer incidence in women. Vitamin E increases the risk of haemorrhagic strokes.

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Vitamin E Scaffolds of pH-Responsive Lipid Nanoparticles as DNA Vaccines in Cancer and Protozoan Infection

Maeta M, Miura N, Tanaka H2 Nakamura T, Kawanishi R, Nishikawa Y, Asano K, Tanaka M, Tamagawa S, Nakai Y, Tange K, Yoshioka H, Harashima H, Akita H

Mol Pharm. 2020 Mar 4. doi: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b01262. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

DNA vaccinations are promising strategies for treating diseases that require cellular immunity (i.e., cancer and protozoan infection). Here, we report on the use of a liposomal nanocarrier (lipid nanoparticles (LNPs)) composed of an SS-cleavable and pH-activated lipidlike material (ssPalm) as an in vivo DNA vaccine. After subcutaneous administration, the LNPs containing an ssPalmE, an ssPalm with vitamin E scaffolds, elicited a higher gene expression activity in comparison with the other LNPs composed of the ssPalms with different hydrophobic scaffolds. Immunization with the ssPalmE-LNPs encapsulating plasmid DNA that encodes ovalbumin (OVA, a model tumor antigen) or profilin (TgPF, a potent antigen of Toxoplasma gondii) induced substantial antitumor or antiprotozoan effects, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of the cells that had taken up the LNPs in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) showed that the ssPalmE-LNPs were largely taken up by macrophages and a small number of dendritic cells. We found that the transient deletion of CD169+ macrophages, a subpopulation of macrophages that play a key role in cancer immunity, unexpectedly enhanced the activity of the DNA vaccine. These data suggest that the ssPalmE-LNPs are effective DNA vaccine carriers, and a strategy for avoiding their being trapped by CD169+ macrophages will be a promising approach for developing next-generation DNA vaccines.

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Fatty acids based α-Tocopherol loaded nanostructured lipid carrier gel: In vitro and in vivo evaluation for moisturizing and anti-aging effects

Ijaz M, Akhtar N

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020 Mar 4. doi: 10.1111/jocd.13346. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

α-Tocopherol is a potent antioxidant present in the skin. Its concentration decreases with age. Synthetically available α-tocopherol is viscous, irritating to skin and unstable toward oxidation and ultraviolet (UV) light.

AIMS:

To develop fatty acids based nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) gel loaded with α-tocopherol and to evaluate its moisturizing and anti-aging properties.

METHODS:

Lauric acid, oleic acid, and Tween-80 were used as solid lipid, liquid lipid, and surfactant, respectively. Seven formulations (F0-F6) were developed by using different concentration of ingredients. Most optimized formulation (F2) was selected for further study on the basis of characterization. Dialysis tube method was used for release study. F2 was incorporated in gel, and then, in vitro and noninvasive in vivo study regarding skin moisture content by corneometer® and skin mechanical properties by cutometer® for 12 weeks on human volunteers (n = 13) was conducted.

RESULTS:

Size, polydispersibility index (PDI), zeta potential, and %entrapment efficiency (%EE) of optimized formulation (F2) were found 82 nm, 0.261, -28.6, and 94.88 ± 1.16, respectively. Particles were spherical in shape. The release profile showed initial burst and then sustained release, and release data were best fitted to weibull model. α-tocopherol loaded NLC gel (NLCG) appeared physically stable for 12 weeks at room temperature and showed significant results in terms of skin capacitance and mechanical properties. Rheological assessment showed non-Newtonian behavior.

CONCLUSION:

Fatty acids based NLC proved to be a promising carrier of photochemically unstable lipophilic vitamin E with enhanced moisturizing and anti-aging properties.

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Annatto-Derived Tocotrienol Promotes Mineralization of MC3T3-E1 Cells by Enhancing BMP-2 Protein Expression via Inhibiting RhoA Activation and HMG-CoA Reductase Gene Expression

Wan Hasan WN, Chin KY, Abd Ghafar N, Soelaiman IN

Drug Des Devel Ther. 2020 Mar 3;14:969-976. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S224941. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Annatto-derived tocotrienol (AnTT) has been shown to improve bone formation in animal models of osteoporosis and promote differentiation of pre-osteoblastic cells. However, the mechanism of action of AnTT in achieving these effects is unclear. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of action of AnTT on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts via the mevalonate pathway.

METHODS:

Murine pre-osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1, were cultured with the density of 1 × 104 cells/mL and treated with 4 concentrations of AnTT (0.001-1 µg/mL). Expression of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) gene was carried out using qPCR after treatment with AnTT for 21 days. RhoA activation and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were measured using immunoassay after 9 and 15 days of AnTT treatment. Lovastatin was used as the positive control. Mineralized nodules were detected using Von Kossa staining after 21 days of AnTT treatment.

RESULTS:

The results showed that HMGR was up-regulated in the lovastatin group on day 9 and 21 compared to the control. Lovastatin also inhibited RhoA activation (day 9 and 15) and increased BMP-2 protein (day 15). On the other hand, AnTT at 0.001 μg/mL (day 3) and 0.1 μg/mL (day 21) significantly down-regulated HMGR gene expression compared to the control. On day 21, HMGR gene expression was significantly reduced in all groups compared to day 15. AnTT at 0.1 μg/mL significantly decreased RhoA activation on day 9 compared to the control. AnTT at 1 μg/mL significantly increased BMP-2 protein on day 15 compared to the control (P<0.05). Mineralized calcium nodules were more abundant in AnTT treated groups compared to the control on day 21.

CONCLUSION:

AnTT suppresses the mevalonate pathway by downregulating HMGR gene expression and inhibiting RhoA activation, leading to increased BMP-2 protein in MC3T3-E1 cells. This explains the stimulating effects of AnTT on osteoblast mineralization.

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UPLC-MS/MS method for determination of retinol and α-tocopherol in serum using a simple sample pretreatment and UniSpray as ionization technique to reduce matrix effects

Peersman N, Elslande JV, Lepage Y, De Amicis S, Desmet K, Vermeersch P

Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020 Mar 2. pii: /j/cclm.ahead-of-print/cclm-2019-1237/cclm-2019-1237.xml. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2019-1237. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Background Our goal was to develop a simple, rapid and precise ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of retinol and α-tocopherol in serum. Currently published LC-MS/MS methods either require complex extraction procedures (liquid-liquid or solid-phase) or do not meet desirable specifications for imprecision in serum (coefficient of variation [CV] <6.8% and 6.9%, respectively). Methods Sample preparation consisted of a simple protein precipitation with ethanol and acetonitrile. Stable isotope-labeled internal standards (IS) and a homemade calibration curve were used for quantification. The analysis was performed using an Acquity I-class Xevo TQ XS LC-MS/MS. Chromatographic runtime was 6.0 min using a reversed phase gradient elution. UniSpray (US) as an ionization technique was compared to electrospray ionization (ESI). Analytical validation included matrix effect, recovery and trueness compared to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standards and United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (UK NEQAS) samples. Results Intra- and inter-run CVs were <4.9% for retinol and <1.7% for α-tocopherol, both complying with desirable specifications for imprecision. Bias compared to NIST standards was <3.1% for both compounds. The method was linear over the entire tested range. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) with US was lower than with ESI for both retinol (0.022 vs. 0.043 mg/L) and α-tocopherol (0.22 vs. 0.87 mg/L). Matrix effects were not significant (<15%) for retinol. However, for α-tocopherol matrix effects of on average 54.0% were noted using ESI, but not with US. Conclusions We developed a fast, precise and accurate UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of retinol and α-tocopherol in human serum using a single-step sample pretreatment. Ionization using US eliminated the matrix effects for α-tocopherol.

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