Maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E improve placental angiogenesis in late-onset but not early-onset preeclampsia

Kasture V, Sundrani D, Dalvi S, Swamy M, Kale A, Joshi S

Mol Cell Biochem. 2019 Aug 16. doi: 10.1007/s11010-019-03599-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Abnormal placental vasculature is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is of two types, i.e., early- and late-onset preeclampsia (LOP), both having different etiologies. We have earlier demonstrated low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E in women with preeclampsia. The current study examines the effect of maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E supplementation on angiogenic factors in a rat model of preeclampsia. Pregnant rats were divided into a total of five groups control, early-onset preeclampsia (EOP); LOP; EOP supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin E and LOP supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin E. Preeclampsia was induced by administering L-nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME) at the dose of 50 mg/kg body weight/day. The vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression and protein levels were lower (p < 0.01 for both) in animals from both EOP as well as LOP groups (p < 0.01). In the EOP group, the protein levels of VEGF receptor-1 were also lower (p < 0.01). Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E to LOP improved the levels of VEGF and VEGF receptor-1 only in the LOP but not in the EOP group. In the EOP group, the gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in the placenta was higher (p < 0.05) and supplementation normalized these levels. Our findings indicate that maternal supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E has differential effect on preeclampsia subtypes.

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Synthesis of Daidzein Glycosides, α-Tocopherol Glycosides, Hesperetin Glycosides by Bioconversion and Their Potential for Anti-Allergic Functional-Foods and Cosmetics

Fujitaka Y, Hamada H, Uesugi D, Kuboki A, Shimoda K, Iwaki T, Kiriake Y, Saikawa T

Molecules. 2019 Aug 16;24(16). pii: E2975. doi: 10.3390/molecules24162975.

Abstract

Daidzein is a common isoflavone, having multiple biological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-allergy, and anti-aging. α-Tocopherol is the tocopherol isoform with the highest vitamin E activity including anti-allergic activity and anti-cancer activity. Hesperetin is a flavone, which shows potent anti-inflammatory effects. These compounds have shortcomings, i.e., water-insolubility and poor absorption after oral administration. The glycosylation of bioactive compounds can enhance their water-solubility, physicochemical stability, intestinal absorption, and biological half-life, and improve their bio- and pharmacological properties. They were transformed by cultured Nicotiana tabacum cells to 7-β-glucoside and 7-β-gentiobioside of daidzein, and 3′- and 7-β-glucosides, 3′,7-β-diglucoside, and 7-β-gentiobioside of hesperetin. Daidzein and α-tocopherol were glycosylated by galactosylation with β-glucosidase to give 4′- and 7-β-galactosides of daidzein, which were new compounds, and α-tocopherol 6-β-galactoside. These nine glycosides showed higher anti-allergic activity, i.e., inhibitory activity toward histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, than their respective aglycones. In addition, these glycosides showed higher tyrosinase inhibitory activity than the corresponding aglycones. Glycosylation of daidzein, α-tocopherol, and hesperetin greatly improved their biological activities.

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Comparing the effects of Portulaca oleracea seed hydro-alcoholic extract, valsartan, and vitamin E on hemodynamic changes, oxidative stress parameters and cardiac hypertrophy in thyrotoxic rats

Pakdel R, Vatanchian M, Niazmand S, Beheshti F, Rahimi M, Aghaee A, Hadjzadeh MA

Drug Chem Toxicol. 2019 Aug 15:1-8. doi: 10.1080/01480545.2019.1651330. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

The present study compared the effects of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea) seed hydro-alcoholic extract, valsartan, and vitamin E on hemodynamic changes, oxidative stress markers and cardiac hypertrophy in a model of thyrotoxicosis. The hyperthyroid state was induced by intraperitoneal injection of levothyroxine (100 µg/kg) for 4 weeks in male adult rats. After 2 weeks, vitamin E (20 mg/kg), valsartan (8 mg/kg), and P. oleracea seed extract (400 mg/kg) were administered in three groups of thyrotoxic rats. The control group was given a daily injection of normal saline. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured on three occasions with tail cuff. At the end of the fourth week, the animals were scarified and serum samples and heart tissue were collected for biochemical and histological studies. The levothyroxine increased heart rate and systolic blood pressure. A lower heart rate and reduced systolic blood pressure were observed in groups receiving valsartan and P. oleracea extract. The heart weight/body weight ratio increased in groups treated with levothyroxine, but in a microscopic study, cardiomyocyte width was not different between the groups. Levothyroxine increased the level of malondyaldehide and NO metabolite but reduced the thiol concentration, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities. However, treatment with vitamin E and P. oleracea extract increased the thiol concentration, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities while decreasing malondyaldehide level. In addition, treatment with P. oleracea extract and valsartan decreased NO metabolite level. Treatment with P. oleracea extract improved levothyroxine induced oxidative stress and hemodynamic changes. These effects may be for antioxidant components.

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Alpha-Tocopherol during lactation and after weaning alters the programming effect of prenatal high salt intake on cardiac and renal functions of adult male offspring

Cabral EV, Vieira LD, Sant'Helena BRM, Ribeiro VS, Farias JS, Aires RS, Paz ST, Muzi-Filho H, Paixão AD, Vieyra A

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2019 Aug 14. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.13161. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Maternal salt overload programs cardiovascular and renal alterations in the offspring. However, beneficial and harmful effects of high dose vitamin E supplementation have been described in humans and animals. We investigated the hypothesis as to whether cardiac and renal alterations can be programmed by gestational salt overload, and can become further modified during lactation and after weaning. Male Wistar rats were used, being the offspring of mothers that drank either tap water or 0.3 M NaCl for 20 days before and during pregnancy. α-Tocopherol (0.35 g/kg) was administered to mothers daily during lactation or to their offspring for 3 weeks post-weaning. Systolic blood pressure (tcSBP) was measured in juvenile rats aged 210 days. The response of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) to intravenous infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) was also examined. Left ventricle plasma membrane (PMCA) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) activities, and certain parameters of renal function, were measured. Maternal saline programmed for increased body mass and kidney mass/body mass ratio, increased tcSBP, increased mean arterial pressure and heart rate with anomalous response to infused Ang II. In the heart, saline increased PMCA and α-Tocopherol per se increased PMCA/SERCA. In the kidney, the most remarkable result was the silent saline programming of CrCl , which was sensitized for a sharp decrease after α-Tocopherol. In conclusion, the combination of maternal saline overload and high α-Tocopherol immediately after birth leads to simultaneous cardiovascular and renal alterations in the young offspring, like those encountered in type V cardiorenal syndrome.

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Effects of pentoxifylline and tocopherol on a rat-irradiated jaw model using micro-CT cortical bone analysis

Nguyen TTH, Eo MY, Seo MH, Myoung H, Kim SM, Lee JH

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 Aug 14. doi: 10.1007/s00405-019-05600-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

PURPOSE:

A combination of pentoxifylline (PTX) and tocopherol (TP) is believed to reduce chronic fibrosis and induce bone healing in osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible, but evidence of its therapeutic effectiveness for cortical bone is lacking. This study was designed to determine the effect of combined PTX and TP (PTX + TP) on mandibular cortical bone remodeling in a rat model of ORN, using micro-CT and histological analysis.

METHODS:

Forty-eight 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into irradiated (n = 40) and non-irradiated (n = 8) groups. Animals in the irradiated group were divided into four sub-groups, including PTX, TP, PTX + TP, and normal saline. Three weeks after irradiation, mandibular posterior tooth extraction was performed, and animals were sacrificed 7 weeks after irradiation. The mandibles were analyzed using micro-CT and histological evaluation.

RESULTS:

The alveolar bone height, cortical bone thickness, cortical bone volume, and total cortical bone surface of the PTX + TP group were significantly greater than those of other irradiated groups (p < 0.05). In 3D reconstructed images, the residual volumes of cortical and cancellous bone were inadequate in the irradiated groups.

CONCLUSION:

We found that a combination of PTX and TP improved quality and quantity of cortical bone in irradiated rat mandibles, thus providing supporting evidence of its utility as a treatment and prophylactic agent in ORN. We observed inadequate volumes of cortical and cancellous bone in ORN mandibles, suggesting that cortical bone could play an important role in further ORN studies.

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Transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular mechanisms of combined gamma-tocotrienol and hydroxychavicol in preventing the proliferation of 1321N1, SW1783, and LN18 glioma cancer cells

Abdul Rahman A, Mokhtar NM, Harun R, Jamal R, Wan Ngah WZ

J Physiol Biochem. 2019 Aug 14. doi: 10.1007/s13105-019-00699-z. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Gamma-tocotrienol (GTT) and hydroxychavicol (HC) exhibit anticancer activity in glioma cancer cells, where the combination of GTT + HC was shown to be more effective than single agent. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of GTT + HC by measuring the cell cycle progression, migration, invasion, and colony formation of glioma cancer cells and elucidating the changes in gene expression mitigated by GTT + HC that are critical to the chemoprevention of glioma cell lines 1321N1 (grade II), SW1783 (grade III), and LN18 (grade IV) using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Results of gene expression levels and alternative splicing transcripts were validated by qPCR. Exposure of glioma cancer cells to GTT + HC for 24 h promotes cell cycle arrest at G2M and S phases and inhibits cell migration, invasion, and colony formation of glioma cancer cells. The differential gene expression induced by GTT + HC clustered into response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cell cycle regulations, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, cell growth, and DNA repair. Subnetwork analysis of genes altered by GTT + HC revealed central genes, ATF4 and XBP1. The modulation of EIF2AK3, EDN1, and FOXM1 were unique to 1321N1, while CSF1, KLF4, and FGF2 were unique to SW1783. PLK2 and EIF3A gene expressions were only altered in LN18. Moreover, GTT + HC treatment dynamically altered transcripts and alternative splicing expression. GTT + HC showed therapeutic potential against glioma cancer as evident by the inhibition of cell cycle progression, migration, invasion, and colony formation of glioma cancer cells, as well as the changes in gene expression profiles with key targets in ER unfolded protein response pathway, apoptosis, cell cycle, and migration/invasion.

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The Effects of Annatto Tocotrienol Supplementation on Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in an Animal Model of Osteoarthritis Induced by Monosodium Iodoacetate

Chin KY, Wong SK, Japar Sidik FZ, Abdul Hamid J, Abas NH, Mohd Ramli ES, Afian Mokhtar S, Rajalingham S, Ima Nirwana S

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Aug 13;16(16). pii: E2897. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16162897.

Abstract

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease which primarily affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bones. Since there is an underlying localized inflammatory component in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, compounds like tocotrienol with anti-inflammatory properties may be able to retard its progression. This study aimed to determine the effects of oral tocotrienol supplementation on the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in a rat model of osteoarthritis induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (three-month-old) were randomized into five groups. Four groups were induced with osteoarthritis (single injection of MIA at week 0) and another served as the sham group. Three of the four groups with osteoarthritis were supplemented with annatto tocotrienol at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day orally for five weeks. At week 5, all rats were sacrificed, and their tibial-femoral joints were harvested for analysis. The results indicated that the groups which received annatto tocotrienol at 100 and 150 mg/kg/day had lower histological scores and cartilage remodeling markers. Annatto tocotrienol at 150 mg/kg/day significantly lowered the osteocalcin levels and osteoclast surface of subchondral bone. In conclusion, annatto tocotrienol may potentially retard the progression of osteoarthritis. Future studies to confirm its mechanism of joint protection should be performed.

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α-Tocopherol Modulates Non-Amyloidogenic Pathway and Autophagy in an In Vitro Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Transcriptional Study

Gugliandolo A, Chiricosta L, Silvestro S, Bramanti P, Mazzon E

Brain Sci. 2019 Aug 10;9(8). pii: E196. doi: 10.3390/brainsci9080196.

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. The hallmarks of AD are the extracellular amyloid plaques, which are formed by amyloid β (Aβ) aggregates derived from the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and the intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, which are formed by the hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The aim of this work was to study the effects of α-tocopherolin retinoic acid differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to Aβ1-42 evaluating the transcriptional profile by next-generation sequencing. We observed that α-tocopherol was able to reduce the cytotoxicity induced by Aβ treatment, as demonstrated by Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. Moreover, the transcriptomic analysis evidenced that α-tocopherol treatment upregulated genes involved in the non-amyloidogenic processing of APP, while it downregulated the amyloidogenic pathway. Moreover, α-tocopherol modulated the expression of the genes involved in autophagy and the cell cycle, which are both known to be altered in AD. The treatment with α-tocopherolwas also able to reduce oxidative stress, restoring nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) and decreasing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry.

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Application of ɑ-Tocotrienol-Loaded Biocompatible Precirol in Attenuation of Doxorubicin Dose-Dependent Behavior in HUH-7 Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line

Tupal A, Sabzichi M, Bazzaz R, Fathi Maroufi N, Mohammadi M, Pirouzpanah SM, Ramezani F

Nutr Cancer. 2019 Aug 8:1-9. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2019.1650191. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Tumor-targeted nanoparticle delivery system has been known as a substitute and capable achievement in cancer treatment compared to conventional methods. In this study, we examined potential application of ɑ-tocotrienol-Precirol formulation to enhance efficiency of doxorubicin (DOX) in induction of apoptosis in HUH-7 hepatocarcinoma cells. ɑ-tocotrienol-loaded nanoparticles were characterized at the point of zeta potential, particle size, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and cell internalization. To evaluate antiproliferative effects of formulation, apoptosis, cell cycle procedure, flow cytometry, and MTT assays were employed. Optimum size of the ɑ-tocotrienol formulation revealed narrow size distribution with mean average of 78 ± 3 nm. IC50 values for ɑ-tocotrienol and ɑ-tocotrienol-nano structured lipid carriers after 24 h were 15 ± 0.6 and 10 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. After incubation of cells with ɑ-tocotrienol-loaded careers, the rate of cell proliferation decreased from 53 ± 6.1 to 34 ± 7.1% (P < 0.05). A significant improvement in the apoptosis percentage was revealed after treatment of the HUH-7 cell line with DOX and ɑ-tocotrienol careers (P < 0.05). Gene expression results demonstrated a marked decrease in survivin and increase in Bid and Bax levels. Our findings suggest that ɑ-tocotrienol-loaded nanoparticles elevate DOX efficacy in HUH-7 hepatocarcinoma cell.

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α-Tocopherol preserves cardiac function by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in ischemia/reperfusion injury

Wallert M, Ziegler M, Wang X, Maluenda A, Xu X, Yap ML, Witt R, Giles C, Kluge S, Hortmann M, Zhang J, Meikle P, Lorkowski S, Peter K

Redox Biol. 2019 Aug 6;26:101292. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101292. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and new treatment strategies are highly sought-after. Paradoxically, reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium, as achieved with early percutaneous intervention, results in substantial damage to the heart (ischemia/reperfusion injury) caused by cell death due to aggravated inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. Chronic therapy with vitamin E is not effective in reducing the cardiovascular event rate, presumably through failing to reduce atherosclerotic plaque instability. Notably, acute treatment with vitamin E in patients suffering a MI has not been systematically investigated.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We applied alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH), the strongest anti-oxidant form of vitamin E, in murine cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 60 min. α-TOH significantly reduced infarct size, restored cardiac function as measured by ejection fraction, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and stroke volume, and prevented pathological changes as assessed by state-of-the-art strain and strain-rate analysis. Cardioprotective mechanisms identified, include a decreased infiltration of neutrophils into cardiac tissue and a systemic anti-inflammatory shift from Ly6Chigh to Ly6Clow monocytes. Furthermore, we found a reduction in myeloperoxidase expression and activity, as well as a decrease in reactive oxygen species and the lipid peroxidation markers phosphatidylcholine (PC) (16:0)-9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) and PC(16:0)-13-HODE) within the infarcted tissue.

CONCLUSION:

Overall, α-TOH inhibits ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced oxidative and inflammatory responses, and ultimately preserves cardiac function. Therefore, our study provides a strong incentive to test vitamin E as an acute therapy in patients suffering a MI.

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