The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E on waterpipe tobacco smoking-induced memory impairment: The antioxidative role

Alzoubi KH, Halboup AM, Alomari MM, Khabour OF

Life Sci. 2019 Feb 25. pii: S0024-3205(19)30140-7. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.02.050. [Epub ahead of print]



Tobacco smoking is associated with a vast range of adverse health effects, including diminished cognitive and anti-oxidative capabilities. Conversely, vitamin E (VitE) is known to enhance data acquisition and retention and hippocampal oxidative defense. No studies, however, examined the protective effect of VitE with tobacco administration. Therefore, this study examined the protective effect of VitE on the cognitive and oxidative debilitating effects induced by waterpipe smoking.


Wistar male rats were divided into four groups: waterpipe smoking, VitE, waterpipe combined with VitE, and control group. The exposure to waterpipe and VitE was for one month and then spatial learning and memory were assesses using Radial Arms Water Maze. Additionally, oxidative stress biomarkers (Catalase, GPx, and TBARS, GSH, GSSG, and GSH/GSSG ratio) were assessed in the hippocampus.


The results revealed that waterpipe smoking impaired short-term and long-term memory (P < 0.05). Waterpipe smoking reduced activity of catalase (P < 0.05), GPx (P < 0.05) and GSH/GSSG ratio (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus. Administration of VitE prevented memory impairment and alterations in oxidative stress biomarkers.


waterpipe smoking induces short-term and long-term memory impairments, which were prevented by administration of VitE via its anti-oxidative properties.

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The Effect of Lipid Antioxidant α-Tocopherol on Cell Viability and Electrofusion Yield of B16-F1 Cells In Vitro

Kanduser M, Kokalj Imsirovic M, Usaj M

J Membr Biol. 2019 Feb;252(1):105-114. doi: 10.1007/s00232-019-00059-4. Epub 2019 Jan 22.


Induced cell fusion is a powerful method for production of hybridoma in biotechnology and cell vaccines in medical applications. Among different alternatives, physical methods have an advantage, as they do not require any additives. Among them electrofusion, an electroporation-based cell fusion method holds a great promise. Electric pulses cause cell membrane permeabilization and due to pore formation bring cell membrane into the fusogenic state. At the same time, however, they compromise cell viability. We used a train of 8 × 100 µs electric pulses, delivered at 1 Hz with strengths ranging from 400 to 1600 V/cm. We evaluated electrofusion efficiency by dual color microscopy. We determined cell viability, because during electroporation reactive oxygen species are generated affecting cell survival. The novelty of our study is evaluation of the effect of lipid antioxidant α-tocopherol on cell fusion yield and cell viability on mouse B16-F1 cells. Pretreatment with α-tocopherol slowed down dynamic of cell fusion shortly after electroporation. Twenty-four hours later, fusion yields between α-tocopherol treated and untreated cells were comparable. The viability of α-tocopherol pretreated cells was drastically improved. Pretreatment of cells with α-tocopherol improved whole electrofusion process by more than 60%. We believe that α-tocopherol holds great promise to become an important agent to improve cell electrofusion method.

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DHA and vitamin E antagonized the Aβ25-35-mediated neuron oxidative damage through activation of Nrf2 signaling pathways and regulation of CD36, SRB1 and FABP5 expression in PC12 cells

Huang X , Zhen J , Dong S , Zhang H , Van Halm-Lutterodt N , Yuan L

Food Funct. 2019 Feb 20;10(2):1049-1061. doi: 10.1039/c8fo01713a.


The present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or vitamin E (VE) in vitro. The PC12 cells were pretreated with DHA and/or VE for 4 h, followed by 50 μmol L-1 Aβ25-35 treatments for another 48 h. The cells were then collected and used for the measurements of oxidative stress parameters. Real time-PCR and western blot were applied to measure fatty acid transporters, Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant targets’ gene and protein expression. Our results indicated that the Aβ25-35 treatment inhibited cellular growth, increased intracellular ROS generation and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. The Aβ25-35 treatment decreased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), whereas it increased the MDA levels in neuron cells. Pretreatment of cells with VE or DHA could antagonize the Aβ25-35-mediated cell growth inhibition and mitochondrial membrane potential decline. Activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway and regulation of CD36, SRB1 and FABP5 expression were observed in DHA- and DHA + VE-pretreated cells. Our results indicated a synergistic effect of DHA and VE in antagonizing the oxidative damage caused by Aβ25-35 in the PC12 cells. The results of the present study will shed light on the application of nutritional intervention for DHA and VE in preventing neuronal damage-related diseases.

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Vitamin E: Regulatory role in the cardiovascular system

Sozen E, Demirel T, Ozer NK

IUBMB Life. 2019 Feb 18. doi: 10.1002/iub.2020. [Epub ahead of print]


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality, all around the world. Vitamin E is an important nutrient influencing key cellular and molecular mechanisms as well as gene expression regulation centrally involved in the prevention of CVD. Cell culture and animal studies have focused on the identification of vitamin E regulated signaling pathways and involvement on inflammation, lipid homeostasis, and atherosclerotic plaque stability. While some of these vitamin E functions were verified in clinical trials, some of the positive effects were not translated into beneficial outcomes in epidemiological studies. In recent years, the physiological metabolites of vitamin E, including the liver derived (long- and short-chain) metabolites and phosphorylated (α-, γ-tocopheryl phosphate) forms, have also provided novel mechanistic insight into CVD regulation that expands beyond the vitamin E precursor. It is certain that this emerging insight into the molecular and cellular action of vitamin E will help to design further studies, either in animal models or clinical trials, on the reduction of risk for CVDs. This review focuses on vitamin E-mediated preventive cardiovascular effects and discusses novel insights into the biology and mechanism of action of vitamin E metabolites in CVD.

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The Effectiveness of Vitamin E Treatment in Alzheimer’s Disease

Lloret A, Esteve D, Monllor P, Cervera-Ferri A, Lloret A

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Feb 18;20(4). pii: E879. doi: 10.3390/ijms20040879.


Vitamin E was proposed as treatment for Alzheimer’s disease many years ago. However, the effectiveness of the drug is not clear. Vitamin Eis an antioxidant and neuroprotector and it has anti-inflammatory and hypocholesterolemic properties, driving to its importance for brain health. Moreover, the levels of vitamin E in Alzheimer’s disease patients are lower than in non-demented controls. Thus, vitamin E could be a good candidate to have beneficial effects against Alzheimer’s. However, evidence is consistent with a limited effectiveness of vitamin E in slowing progression of dementia; the information is mixed and inconclusive. The question is why does vitamin E fail to treat Alzheimer’s disease? In this paper we review the studies with and without positive results in Alzheimer’s disease and we discuss the reasons why vitamin E as treatment sometimes has positive results on cognition but at others, it does not.

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Serum vitamin E as a significant prognostic factor in patients with dyslipidemia disorders

Barzegar-Amini M, Ghazizadeh H, Seyedi SMR, Sadeghnia HR, Mohammadi A, Hassanzade-Daloee M, Barati E, Kharazmi-Khorassani S, Kharazmi-Khorassani J, Mohammadi-Bajgiran M, Tavallaie S, Ferns GA, Mouhebati M, Ebrahimi M, Tayefi M, Ghayour-Mobarhan M

Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2019 Jan - Feb;13(1):666-671. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.11.034. Epub 2018 Nov 13.



Obesity and overweight are among the main causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Dyslipidemia, fatty liver index, is strongly related to CVD. Vitamin E as an antioxidant protects the hepatic cells against oxidative stress and prevents fatty liver disease. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the relationship between anthropometric parameters and fasted lipid profile with serum vitamin Elevels.


A randomized trial was designed based on data from the Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorders (MASHAD: 2010-2020).


363 CVD subjects (173 males and 190 females) was selected at random, among 9704 subjects in three regions of Mashhad, northeast of Iran to investigate the specific correlations among their serum vitamin E, lipid profile (TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and TC), and anthropometric features (height, weight, BMI, hip and waist circumferences.


The results indicated the significant relationships between vitamin E, and fasting serum lipid profile in subjects. Serum vitamin Ewas negatively correlated to TC, TG, and LDL-C and positively related to HDL-C. Also, statistically negative correlations were found between vitamin E and anthropometric parameters (weight, waist and hip circumference, middle Arm, and Systolic Blood Pressure). Moreover, vitamin E ratios such as vitamin E/(TC + TG) and vitamin E/TC values as standardized vitamin E, had significant negative correlation with BMI, the whole of anthropometric parameters, and dyslipidemia risk factors including TC, TG and LDL-C.


We found that vitamin E profile was significantly lower in the dyslipidemia subjects. It is generally suggested that vitamin E monitoring might be used as a useful prognostic and therapeutic agent in dyslipidemia disorder.

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Combined use of vitamin E and nimodipine ameliorates dibutyl phthalate-induced memory deficit and apoptosis in mice by inhibiting the ERK 1/2 pathway

Yan B, Sun Y, Zeng J, Chen Y, Li C, Song P, Zhang L, Yang X, Wu Y, Ma P

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2019 Feb 15;368:1-17. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2019.02.008. [Epub ahead of print]


Learning disabilities (LDs) in children are a serious global problem. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a plasticizer widely used in daily life, has been linked to triggering childhood LDs, however the mechanism underlying this remains unclear. Studies have shown that the ERK 1/2 pathway is closely related to apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. On the basis of these links between LDs, DBP and the ERK 1/2 pathway, we explore whether DBP induces hippocampal neuron apoptosis and increases behavioral disorders in mice via the ERK 1/2 pathway. We looked at oxidative stress, examined the calcium signal, detected the ERK 1/2 pathway and evaluated apoptosis as well as using histological observations, and found that DBP significantly increased oxidative damage and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons via the ERK 1/2 pathway in mice. We also found that pretreatment with the dihydropyridine’s (DHP’s) Ca2+ antagonist, nimodipine (NMDP), combined with the antioxidant Vitamin E (VE), attenuated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and DBP-mediated disorders, suggesting that a combined use of VE and NMDP can ameliorate DBP-induced memory deficit and apoptosis via inhibiting the ERK 1/2 pathway. These results indicate that DBP predisposes oxidative damage and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons by activation of the ERK 1/2 pathway, and may be proposed as a possible mechanism underlying LDs in children. Moreover, VE and NMDP may play a certain protective role in the targeted treatment of childhood LDs.

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The Antioxidant Effects of Hydroxytyrosol and Vitamin E on Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, in a Clinical Trial: A New Treatment?

Nobili V, Alisi A, Mosca A, Crudele A, Zaffina S, Denaro M, Smeriglio A, Trombetta D

Antioxid Redox Signal. 2019 Feb 11. doi: 10.1089/ars.2018.7704. [Epub ahead of print]


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Several studies suggest that the improvement of oxidative stress is suggested as a possible therapeutic strategy for pediatric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We performed a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to test the potential efficacy, assessed by improvement of oxidative stress parameters and liver ultrasound, and tolerability of a mixture of vitamin E and hydroxytyrosol (HXT) in adolescents with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Four hundred forty consecutive patients were screened, 80 of these with biopsy-proven NAFLD were enrolled. Forty patients received an oral dose of HXT and vitamin E and 40 children received the capsules of placebo for 4 months. Seventy patients completed the study. Patients in the treatment arm showed a decrease of insulin resistance (IR), triglyceride levels, oxidative stress parameters, and steatosis grade. Noteworthy, the steatosis improvement correlates with the levels of advanced glycation end products and carbonylated proteins. The HXT and vitamin Etreatment improved the main oxidative stress parameters, IR, and steatosis in children with NAFLD. The use of two natural molecules that may have antioxidant effects seems a promising strategy that could be easily diet integrated to improve NAFLD-related liver damage in children.

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Vitamins E and C prevent apoptosis of testicular and ovarian tissues following mancozeb exposure in the first-generation mouse pups

Mahdi H, Tahereh H, Esmaiel S, Massood E

Toxicol Ind Health. 2019 Feb;35(2):136-144. doi: 10.1177/0748233718818692. Epub 2019 Jan 16.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of apoptosis in the first-generation pups’ testicular and ovarian tissue changes following mancozeb (MNZ) administration during intrauterine and lactating periods and also the preventive effect of the co-administration of vitamins E and C on these changes. Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) pregnant mice were randomly divided into six groups: control, vehicle, MNZ, vitamin E plus MNZ, vitamin C plus MNZ and vitamins E and C plus MNZ. Administered doses of MNZ and vitamins E and C were 500, 200 and 100 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. These agents were administered to the animals by oral gavage every 2 days. Vitamin treatment was carried out 30 min prior to MNZ administration. Treatment was started on the second day of gestation and continued until weaning. Separated testes and ovaries of animals were prepared for apoptosis detection by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. The percentage of TUNEL-positive cells was reported using the 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole method. As compared to the control and vehicle groups, MNZ induced a significant increase ( p < 0.001) in the number of TUNEL-positive cells. The administration of both vitamins E and C alone and together significantly ( p < 0.001) prevented the apoptotic impacts of MNZ. The preventive effect of the co-administration of these vitamins on the ovary was greater compared to the single administration of vitamins E ( p < 0.001) or C ( p < 0.001). Meanwhile, the results revealed the stronger preventive effect of vitamin C as compared to E on testicular tissue ( p < 0.05). The apoptotic impact of MNZ exposure during intrauterine and lactating periods on first-generation testicular and ovarian tissues was significant. The co-administration of vitamins E and C could prevent MNZ-induced testicular and ovarian changes.

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δ-Tocotrienol induces apoptosis, involving endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy, and paraptosis in prostate cancer cells

Fontana F, Moretti RM, Raimondi M, Marzagalli M, Beretta G, Procacci P, Sartori P, Montagnani Marelli M, Limonta P

Cell Prolif. 2019 Feb 4:e12576. doi: 10.1111/cpr.12576. [Epub ahead of print]



Prostate cancer, after the phase of androgen dependence, may progress to the castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) stage, with resistance to standard therapies. Vitamin E-derived tocotrienols (TTs) possess a significant antitumour activity. Here, we evaluated the anti-cancer properties of δ-TT in CRPC cells (PC3 and DU145) and the related mechanisms of action.


MTT, Trypan blue and colony formation assays were used to assess cell viability/cell death/cytotoxicity. Western blot, immunofluorescence and MTT analyses were utilized to investigate apoptosis, ER stress and autophagy. Morphological changes were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy.


We demonstrated that δ-TT exerts a cytotoxic/proapoptotic activity in CRPC cells. We found that in PC3 cells: (a) δ-TT triggers both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy pathways; (b) autophagy induction is related to the ER stress, and this ER stress/autophagy axis is involved in the antitumour activity of δ-TT; in autophagy-defective DU145 cells, only the ER stress pathway is involved in the proapoptotic effects of δ-TT; (c) in both CRPC cell lines, δ-TT also induces an intense vacuolation prevented by the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, together with increased levels of phosphorylated JNK and p38, supporting the induction of paraptosis by δ-TT.


These data demonstrate that apoptosis, involving ER stress and autophagy (in autophagy positive PC3 cells), and paraptosis are involved in the anti-cancer activity of δ-TT in CRPC cells.

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