Vitamin E and Lycopene Reduce Coal Burning Fluorosis-induced Spermatogenic Cell Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress-mediated JNK and ERK Signaling Pathways.

Tian Y, Xiao Y, Wang B, Sun C, Tang K, Sun F

Biosci Rep. 2017 Dec 22. pii: BSR20171003. doi: 10.1042/BSR20171003. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Although fluoride has been widely used in toothpaste, mouthwash, and drinking water to prevent dental caries, the excessive intake of fluoride can cause fluorosis which is associated with dental, skeletal, and soft tissue fluorosis. Recent evidences have drawn the attention to its adverse effects on male reproductive system that include spermatogenesis defect, sperm count loss, and sperm maturation impairment. Fluoride induces oxidative stress through the activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade which can lead to cell apoptosis. Vitamin E (VE) and lycopene are two common anti-oxidants, being protective to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced toxic effects. However, whether and how these two anti-oxidants prevent fluoride-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis are largely unknown. In the present study, a male rat model for coal burning fluorosis was established and the histological lesions and spermatogenic cell apoptosis in rat testes were observed. The decreased expression of clusterin, a heterodimeric glycoprotein reported to regulate spermatogenic cell apoptosis, is detected in fluoride-treated rat testes. Interestingly, the co-administration with VE or lycopene reduced fluorosis-mediated testicular toxicity and rescued clusterin expression. Further, fluoride caused the enhanced Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which was reduced by VE or lycopene. Thus, VE and lycopene prevent coal burning fluorosis-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis through the suppression of oxidative stress-mediated JNK and ERK signaling pathway, which could be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of fluorosis.

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Vitamin E improved bone strength and bone minerals in male rats given alcohol.

Zakaria S, Mat-Husain SZ, Ying-Hwey K, Xin-Kai K, Mohd-Badawi A, Abd-Ghani NA, Aziz MA, Mohamed N

Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2017 Dec;20(12):1360-1367. doi: 10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9610.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress on bone, which in turn increases the risk of osteoporosis. This study determined the effects of vitamin E on bone strength and bone mineral content in alcohol-induced osteoporotic rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Three months old Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (I) control group; (II) alcohol (3g/kg) + normal saline; (III) alcohol (3g/kg) + olive oil; (IV) alcohol (3g/kg) + alpha-tocopherol (60mg/kg) and (V) alcohol (3g/kg) + palm vitamin E (60mg/kg). The treatment lasted for three months. Following sacrifice, the right tibia was subjected to bone biomechanical test while the lumbar (fourth and fifth lumbar) and left tibia bones were harvested for bone mineral measurement.

RESULTS:

Alcohol caused reduction in bone biomechanical parameters (maximum force, ultimate stress, yield stress and Young’s modulus) and bone minerals (bone calcium and magnesium) compared to control group (P<0.05). Palm vitamin E was able to improve bone biomechanical parameters by increasing the maximum force, ultimate stress and Young’s modulus (P<0.05) while alpha-tocopherol was not able to. Both alpha-tocopherol and palm vitamin E were able to significantly increase tibia calcium and magnesium content while only alpha-tocopherol caused significant increase in lumbar calcium content (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION:

Both palm vitamin E and alpha-tocopherol improved bone mineral content which was reduced by alcohol. However, only palm vitamin E was able to improve bone strength in alcohol treated rats.

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Effects of sulforaphane and vitamin E on cognitive disorder and oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice hippocampus at lactation.

Sun B, Zhang X, Yin Y, Sun H, Ge H, Li W

J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2017 Dec;44:88-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2017.06.004.

Abstract

OBJECT:

To investigate the effects of sulforaphane (SFN) and vitamin E (VE) on spatial learning and memory ability and oxidative damage of hippocampus in lead-exposed mice at lactation.

METHODS:

A total of 18 adult Kunming mice, all 12 female mice were divided into two groups by body weight randomly, 10 mice drank water containing 0.2% lead acetate at lactation, the other 2 mice drank lead free deionized water named as the normal group. Then, they were mated at a 1:2 ratio of male to female. After weaning, the pups were divided into 5 groups by weight randomly (10 each group): normal saline (NS) group, corn oil (CO) group, SFN group, VE group and SFN+VE group. They were subject to gavage daily for four weeks. Gavage doses of SFN and VE were 25mg/kg and 30 IU/kg respectively. Meanwhile, 10 pups of the normal group were selected randomly as the control (C) group. The C group was normally raised for 4 weeks. The spatial learning and memory ability of them were evaluated by the Morris water maze test, and the lead level in the blood was determined by polarography. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in hippocampus were measured by the kits.

RESULTS:

Compared with the NS and CO groups, the lead level in the blood of SFN and SFN+VE group had a significant decrease. In water maze test, the mice treated with SFN or/and VE performed better than mice of the NS and CO groups. In addition, a remarkable decrease in MDA level was found in mice treated with SFN or/and VE than those in NS and CO groups. What’s more, there was no statistical distinction of SOD activity in SFN group than that of NS group. SOD activity significantly increased was observed in VE and SFN+VE groups than that of CO group.

CONCLUSION:

Sulforaphane and vitamin E could ameliorate cognitive decline and oxidative damage in pups with lead exposure at lactation from maternal milk.

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Improvement in Therapeutic Ability of Wharton’s Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Vitamin E in Breast Cancer.

Wajid N, Azam M, Khalid S, Ali F, Qazi A, Qazi MH

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2017 Dec;27(12):754-758. doi: 2766.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the role of Vitamin E to improve the survival of Wharton’s jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) in breast cancer conditions.

STUDY DESIGN:

An experimental study.

PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY:

Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine, University of Lahore, from November 2016 to March 2017.

METHODOLOGY:

WJMSCs were obtained from umbilical cord tissue with enzyme digestion method. Isolated cells were characterized for CD90 and CD45 by immunocytochemistry. Pretreatment and conjugation therapies of vitamin E in 50mM and 100mM concentration were used on WJMSCs and breast cancer plasma was provided to mimic the cancer conditions, while WJMSCs provided with normal plasma were considered control. Cells’ viability, proliferation and death were evaluated by crystal violet staining, MTT assay and LDH assay, respectively. Oxidative stress was observed by activity of anti-oxidant enzymes (GSH, catalase, SOD) and reactive oxygen species (MDA).

RESULTS:

The isolated cells expressed mesenchymal stem cells marker CD90 and lacked hematopoietic marker CD45. Vitamin E improved the viability and proliferation of WJMSCs in normal plasma, in conjugation with breast cancer plasma and in pretreatment groups but conjugation group showed even better results with concentration of 100mM as compared to the pretreatment group and opposite was observed for LDH assay for cells death analysis. Vitamin E also reduced the oxidative stress in 100mM more pronounced in conjugation group as compared to pretreatment group while left no harmful effects on WJMSCs in normal plasma.

CONCLUSION:

Vitamin E conjugation with breast cancer conditions significantly improved growth of WJMSCs. Thus vitamin E treated WJMSCs are better therapeutic options for breast cancer.

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Differential Gene Regulation and Tumor-Inhibitory Activities of Alpha-, Delta-, and Gamma-Tocopherols in Estrogen-Mediated Mammary Carcinogenesis.

Das Gupta S, Patel M, Wahler J, Bak MJ, Wall B, Lee MJ, Lin Y, Shih WJ, Cai L, Yang CS, Suh N

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2017 Dec;10(12):694-703. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-17-0190. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Abstract

Despite experimental evidence elucidating the antitumor activities of tocopherols, clinical trials with α-tocopherol (α-T) have failed to demonstrate its beneficial effects in cancer prevention. This study compared the chemopreventive efficacy of individual tocopherols (α-, δ-, and γ-T) and a γ-T-rich tocopherol mixture (γ-TmT) in the August-Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rat model of estrogen-mediated mammary cancer. Female ACI rats receiving 17β-estradiol (E2) implants were administered with 0.2% α-T, δ-T, γ-T, or γ-TmT for 30 weeks. Although α-T had no significant effects on mammary tumor growth in ACI rats, δ-T, γ-T, and γ-TmT reduced mammary tumor volume by 51% (P < 0.05), 60% (P < 0.01), and 59% (P < 0.01), respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that δ-T, γ-T, and γ-TmT reduced levels of the cell proliferation marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, in the rat mammary tumors. To gain further insight into the biological functions of different forms of tocopherols, RNA-seq analysis of the tumors was performed. Treatment with γ-T induced robust gene expression changes in the mammary tumors of ACI rats. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified “Cancer” as a top disease pathway and “Tumor growth” and “Metastasis” as the top signaling pathways modulated by γ-T. Although the results need further functional validation, this study presents an unbiased attempt to understand the differences between biological activities of individual forms of tocopherols at the whole transcriptome level. In conclusion, δ-T and γ-T have superior cancer preventive properties compared to α-T in the prevention of estrogen-mediated mammary carcinogenesis.

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The Response of Macro- and Micronutrient Nutrient Status and Biochemical Processes in Rats Fed on a Diet with Selenium-Enriched Defatted Rapeseed and/or Vitamin E Supplementation.

Rýdlová M, Růnová K, Száková J, Fučíková A, Hakenová A, Mlejnek P, Zídek V, Tremlová J, Mestek O, Kaňa A, Zídková J, Melčová M, Truhlářová K, Tlustoš P.

Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:6759810. doi: 10.1155/2017/6759810. Epub 2017 May 30.

Abstract

The response of nutrient status and biochemical processes in (i) Wistar and (ii) spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats upon dietary intake of selenium- (Se-) enriched defatted rapeseed (DRS) and/or vitamin E fortification was examined to assess the health benefit of DRS in animal nutrition. Twenty-four individuals of each type of rat were used: The control group was fed with an untreated diet (Diet A). In Diets B and C, soybean meal was replaced with defatted DRS, which comprised 14% of the total diet. The selenized DRS application resulted in ~3-fold increase of Se content in the diet. Diet C was also fortified with the addition of vitamin E, increasing the natural content by 30%. The Se content of the blood and kidneys tended to increase in the DRS groups, where the changes were significant (P < 0.05) only in the case of SHR rats. The iodine (I) content and the proportion of iodide in rat livers indicated a lower transformation rate of iodide into organoiodine compounds compared to the control. Slight and ambiguous alterations in the antioxidative response of the rat were observed in the DRS groups, but the addition of vitamin E to the diet helped to moderate these effects.

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Efficacy of vitamins E and C for reversing the cytotoxic effects of nicotine and cotinine.

Torshabi M, Rezaei Esfahrood Z, Jamshidi M, Mansuri Torshizi A, Sotoudeh S

Eur J Oral Sci. 2017 Dec;125(6):426-437. doi: 10.1111/eos.12375. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Abstract

Nicotine has adverse cellular and molecular effects on oral mucosa, bone, and teeth. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) are biological antioxidants with positive effects on wound healing and bone formation. This in vitro study sought to assess the cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of nicotine and cotinine (a metabolite of nicotine) on MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in the presence and absence of antioxidant vitamins E and C (separately and combined). Cell viability and proliferation were assessed using the methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Cell migration was assessed using the scratch test, and expression of apoptosis-related genes was quantitatively analyzed using real-time PCR. Dose-dependent negative effects of nicotine on the morphology, viability, proliferation, and migration of MG-63 and HGF cells were statistically significantly greater than those of cotinine. Vitamin E (separately and combined with vitamin C) was statistically significantly more effective than vitamin C (at the concentration used in this study) at improving cell viability, proliferation, and migration, and at reducing apoptosis of cells exposed to nicotine or cotinine. Based on the positive results of this study, vitamin C and especially vitamin E (systemically and/or locally) may be useful in the repair and regeneration of oral hard and soft tissues in smokers.

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Tocotrienols: the unsaturated sidekick shifting new paradigms in vitamin E therapeutics.

Kanchi MM, Shanmugam MK, Rane G, Sethi G, Kumar AP

Drug Discov Today. 2017 Dec;22(12):1765-1781. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2017.08.001. Epub 2017 Aug 5.

Abstract

Vitamin E family members: tocotrienols and tocopherols are widely known for their health benefits. Decades of research on tocotrienols have shown they have diverse biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective and skin protection benefits, as well as improved cognition, bone health, longevity and reduction of cholesterol levels in plasma. Tocotrienols also modulate several intracellular molecular targets and, most importantly, have been shown to improve lipid profiles, reduce total cholesterol and reduce the volume of white matter lesions in human clinical trials. This review provides a comprehensive update on the little-known therapeutic potentials of tocotrienols, which tocopherols lack in a variety of inflammation-driven diseases.

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Combination Effect of δ-Tocotrienol and γ-Tocopherol on Prostate Cancer Cell Growth.

Sato C, Kaneko S, Sato A, Virgona N, Namiki K, Yano T

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2017;63(5):349-354. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.63.349.

Abstract

Tocotrienols (T3s) and tocopherols (Tocs) are both members of the vitamin E family. It is known that δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3) has displayed the most potent anti-cancer activity amongst the tocotrienols. On the other hand, γ-tocopherol (γ-Toc) is reported to have a protective effect against prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated whether the combination of γ-Toc and δ-T3 could strengthen the inhibitory effect of δ-T3 on prostate cancer cell growth. In this study the effect of combined δ-T3 (annatto T3 oil) and γ-Toc (Tmix, γ-Toc-rich oil) therapy was assessed against human androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells (LNCaP). We found that combined treatment of δ-T3 (10 μM) and γ-Toc (5 μM) resulted in reinforced anti-prostate cancer activity. Specifically, cell cycle phase distribution analysis revealed that in addition to G1 arrest caused by the treatment with δ-T3, the combination of δ-T3 with γ-Toc induced G2/M arrest. Enhanced induction of apoptosis by the combined treatment was also observed. These findings indicate that combination of δ-T3 and γ-Toc significantly inhibits prostate cancer cell growth due to the simultaneous cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and G2/M phase.

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Biochemical characterization, anti-inflammatory properties and ulcerogenic traits of some cold-pressed oils in experimental animals.

Ibrahim FM, Attia HN, Maklad YA, Ahmed KA, Ramadan MF.

Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec;55(1):740-748. doi: 10.1080/13880209.2016.1275705.

Abstract

Cold-pressed oils (CPO) are commercially available in the market and characterized by their health-promoting properties. Clove oil (CLO), coriander seed oil (COO) and black cumin oil (BCO) were evaluated for their bioactive lipids. Pharmacological screening was performed to evaluate acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects as well as histopathological changes in tissues of albino rats fed with CPO. Fatty acids, tocols and total phenolics were analyzed. The acute toxicity test for each CPO was estimated during 14 d. Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema was used for assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of CPO. Animals were fasted overnight, and via oral gavage given indomethacin (10 mg/kg) or CPO (400 mg/kg) to investigate ulcerogenecity. Histopathological changes in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and stomach were screened. Results shown amounts of α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols in CLO were 1495, 58, 4177 and 177 mg/kg oil, respectively. In COO, α, β, γ and δ-tocopherols were 10.0, 18.2, 5.1 and 34.8%, respectively. In BCO, β-tocotrienol was the main constituent. CLO, COO and BCO contained 4.6, 4.2 and 3.6 mg GAE/g, respectively. Acute toxicity test determined that 400 mg/kg of CPO to be used. In the carrageenan model of inflammation, pretreatment of rats with indomethacin (10 mg/kg) or CLO (400 mg/kg) induced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction by 31.3 and 27.4%, respectively, in rat paw oedema as compared with the carrageenan-treated group. Indomethacin induced a significant ulcerogenic effect with an ulcer index of 19. Oral treatment of CPO showed no ulcerogenic effect, wherein no histopathological changes were observed. In conclusion, CPO, particularly CLO, could minimize acute inflammation.

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