Genetic and nutritional factors play an important role in inflammatory response and diseases. CXCL10 is a critical biomarker that is involved in multiple inflammatory diseases, and elevated levels of CXCL10 have been associated with the development of several chronic and infectious diseases. In contrast, micronutrients can attenuate inflammatory responses. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes such as IL-1β at rs16944 contributed to a number of inflammatory disorders and may substantiate the convergance between chronic and infectious diseases.
This study aims to identify the modifying effect of nutritional factors on the association between IL-1β genotypes and CXCL10 levels.
Participants (N = 386) were healthy males and females from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health study recruited from the University of Toronto. Levels of micronutrients and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma. IL-1β genotypes were extracted from the Affymetrix 6.0 SNP chip.
CXCL10 levels were not different across different IL-1β genotypes. Among those with the GA genotype, elevated CXCL10 levels were observed with higher than median ascorbic acid (β = 0.004 ± 0.002, P = 0.047) or higher than median vitamin D status (β = 0.003 ± 0.002, P = 0.044). Among participants with the AA genotype, subjects with low α-tocopherol status had elevated levels of CXCL10 (β = -0.016 ± 0.007, P = 0.012).
The association between IL-1β rs16944 genotype and CXCL10 levels was modified by the levels of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and vitamin D. These findings may aid in understanding the combined effect of genetic and dietary factors in the development of various infectious and chronic diseases in which IL-1β and CXCL10 may play an etiological role.