Effect of maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E supplementation on placental apoptotic markers in rat model of early and late onset preeclampsia

Kasture V, Kale A, Randhir K, Sundrani D, Joshi S

Life Sci. 2019 Nov 12;239:117038. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.117038

Abstract

AIM:

Disturbed placentation results in pregnancy complications like preeclampsia. Placental development is influenced by apoptosis during trophoblast differentiation and proliferation. Increased oxidative stress upregulates placental apoptosis. We have earlier reported increased oxidative stress, lower omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E levels in women with preeclampsia. Current study examines effect of maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E supplementation on apoptotic markers across gestation in a rat model of preeclampsia.

MAIN METHODS:

Pregnant Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control; early onset preeclampsia (EOP); late onset preeclampsia (LOP); early onset preeclampsia + omega-3 fatty acid + vitamin E supplementation (EOP + O + E) and late onset preeclampsia + omega-3 fatty acid + vitamin E supplementation (LOP + O + E) groups. Animals (Control, EOP, EOP + O + E) were sacrificed at d14 and d20 of gestation while animals (LOP, LOP + O + E) were sacrificed at d20 to collect blood and placentae. Protein and mRNA levels of apoptotic markers were analyzed by ELISA and RT-PCR respectively.

KEY FINDINGS:

Protein levels of proapoptotic markers like Bcl-2 associated X-protein (BAX) (p < 0.05), caspase-8 and 3 (p < 0.01 for both) and malondialdehyde (p < 0.01) were higher only in the EOP group as compared to control. However, the antiapoptotic marker, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein levels were lower in both the subtypes of preeclampsia (p < 0.01 for both).

SIGNIFICANCE:

Our findings suggest that supplementation was beneficial in reducing the caspase-8 and 3 in early onset preeclampsia but did not normalize BAX and Bcl-2 levels. This has implications for reducing placental apoptosis in preeclampsia.

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Postoperative Administration of Alpha-tocopherol Enhances Osseointegration of Stainless Steel Implants: An In Vivo Rat Model

Savvidis M, Papavasiliou K, Taitzoglou I, Giannakopoulou A, Kitridis D, Galanis N, Vrabas I, Tsiridis E.

Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2019 Nov 6. doi: 10.1097/CORR.0000000000001037.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Alpha-tocopherol, a well-known antioxidative agent, may have a positive effect on bone formation during the remodeling phase of secondary fracture healing. Fracture healing and osseointegration of implants share common biological pathways; hence, alpha-tocopherol may enhance implant osseointegration.

QUESTIONS/PURPOSES:

This experimental study in rats assessed the ability of alpha-tocopherol to enhance osseointegration of orthopaedic implants as determined by (1) pull-out strength and removal torque and (2) a histomorphological assessment of bone formation. In addition, we asked, (3) is there a correlation between the administration of alpha-tocopherol and a reduction in postoperative oxidative stress (as determined by malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, reduced and oxidized glutathione and their ratio, catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity) that develops after implantation of an orthopaedic implant?

METHODS:

This blinded study was performed in study and control groups, each consisting of 15 young adult male Wistar rats. On Day 0, a custom-designed stainless-steel screw was implanted in the proximal metaphysis of both tibias of all rats. On Day 1, animals were randomized to receive either alpha-tocopherol (40 mg/kg once per day intraperitoneally) or saline (controls). Animals were treated according to identical perioperative and postoperative protocols and were euthanized on Day 29. All animals completed the study and all tibias were suitable for evaluation. Implant pullout strength was assessed in the right tibias, and removal torque and histomorphometric evaluations (that is, volume of newly formed bone surrounding the implant in mm, percentage of newly formed bone, percentage of bone marrow surrounding the implant per optical field, thickness of newly formed bone in μm, percentage of mineralized bone in newly formed bone, volume of mature newly formed bone surrounding the implant in mm and percentage of mineralized newly formed bone per tissue area) were performed in the left tibias. The plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, glutathione, glutathione disulfide, catalase, and the total antioxidant capacity were evaluated, and the ratio of glutathione to oxidized glutathione was calculated.

RESULTS:

All parameters were different between the alpha-tocopherol-treated and control rats, favoring those in the alpha-tocopherol group. The pullout strength for the alpha-tocopherol group (mean ± SD) was 124.9 ± 20.7 newtons (N) versus 88.1 ± 12.7 N in the control group (mean difference -36.7 [95% CI -49.6 to -23.9]; p < 0.001). The torque median value was 7 (range 5.4 to 8.3) versus 5.2 (range 3.6 to 6 ) N/cm (p < 0.001). The newly formed bone volume was 29.8 ± 5.7 X 10 versus 25.2 ± 7.8 X 10 mm (mean difference -4.6 [95% CI -8.3 to -0.8]; p = 0.018), the percentage of mineralized bone in newly formed bone was 74.6% ± 8.7% versus 62.1% ± 9.8% (mean difference -12.5 [95% CI -20.2 to -4.8]; p = 0.003), the percentage of mineralized newly formed bone per tissue area was 40.3 ± 8.6% versus 34.8 ± 9% (mean difference -5.5 [95% CI -10.4 to -0.6]; p = 0.028), the glutathione level was 2 ± 0.4 versus 1.3 ± 0.3 μmol/g of hemoglobin (mean difference -0.6 [95% CI -0.9 to -0.4]; p < 0.001), the median glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio was 438.8 (range 298 to 553) versus 340.1 (range 212 to 454; p = 0.002), the catalase activity was 155.6 ± 44.6 versus 87.3 ± 25.2 U/mg Hb (mean difference -68.3 [95% CI -95.4 to -41.2]; p < 0.001), the malondialdehyde level was 0.07 ± 0.02 versus 0.14 ± 0.03 μmol/g protein (mean difference 0.07 [95% CI 0.05 to 0.09]; p < 0.001), the protein carbonyl level was 0.16 ± 0.04 versus 0.27 ± 0.08 nmol/mg of protein (mean difference -0.1 [95% CI 0.05 to 0.15]; p = 0.002), the alpha-tocopherol level was 3.9 ± 4.1 versus 0.9 ± 0.2 mg/dL (mean difference -3 [95% CI -5.2 to -0.7]; p = 0.011), and the total antioxidant capacity was 15.9 ± 3.2 versus 13.7 ± 1.7 nmol 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical/g of protein (mean difference -2.1 [95% CI -4.1 to -0.18]; p = 0.008).

CONCLUSIONS:

These results using an in vivo rat model support that postoperatively administered alpha-tocopherol can enhance the osseointegration of an orthopaedic implant, although a cause and effect relationship between the administration of alpha-tocopherol and a reduction in postoperative stress cannot be securely established.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE:

These findings suggest that postoperative administration of alpha-tocopherol is a promising approach to enhance osseointegration of orthopaedic implants in patients. Further studies with different animal models and/or different implants and those evaluating the alpha-tocopherol dose response are needed before performing clinical trials that will examine whether these promising, preliminary results can be extrapolated to the clinical setting as well.

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Metabolic dysregulation in vitamin E and carnitine shuttle energy mechanisms associate with human frailty

Rattray NJW, Trivedi DK, Xu Y, Chandola T, Johnson CH, Marshall AD, Mekli K, Rattray Z, Tampubolon G, Vanhoutte B, White IR, Wu FCW, Pendleton N, Nazroo J, Goodacre R

Nat Commun. 2019 Nov 5;10(1):5027. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-12716-2.

Abstract

Global ageing poses a substantial economic burden on health and social care costs. Enabling a greater proportion of older people to stay healthy for longer is key to the future sustainability of health, social and economic policy. Frailty and associated decrease in resilience plays a central role in poor health in later life. In this study, we present a population level assessment of the metabolic phenotype associated with frailty. Analysis of serum from 1191 older individuals (aged between 56 and 84 years old) and subsequent longitudinal validation (on 786 subjects) was carried out using liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics and stratified across a frailty index designed to quantitatively summarize vulnerability. Through multivariate regression and network modelling and mROC modeling we identified 12 significant metabolites (including three tocotrienols and six carnitines) that differentiate frail and non-frail phenotypes. Our study provides evidence that the dysregulation of carnitine shuttle and vitamin E pathways play a role in the risk of frailty.

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Therapeutic effect of Vitamin E in preventing bone loss: An evidence-based review

Nazrun Shuid A, Das S, Mohamed IN

Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Nov;89(5-6):357-370. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000566.

Abstract

The present review explored the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of vitamin E, which has protective action against osteoporosis. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the published bone studies on vitamin E. The studies included inflammatory or immunology-related parameters. Medline and Scopus databases were searched for relevant studies published from 2005 till 2015. Research articles published in English and confined to the effect of vitamin E on bone were included. It is pertinent to mention that these studies took into consideration inflammatory or immunology parameters including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS), serum amyloid A (SAA), e-selection and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). An extended literature search yielded 127 potentially relevant articles with seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Another recent article was added with the total number accounting to eight. All these included literature comprised five animal studies, one in-vitro study and two human studies. These studies demonstrated that vitamin E, especially tocotrienol, was able to alleviate IL-1, IL-6, RANKL, iNOS and hs-CRP levels in relation to bone metabolism. In conclusion, vitamin E exerts its anti-osteoporotic actions via its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

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Less widespread plant oils as a good source of vitamin E

Trela A, Szymańska R

Food Chem. 2019 Oct 30;296:160-166. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.05.185. Epub 2019 May 28.

Abstract

Vitamin E is a family of related compounds with different vitamin E activities and antioxidant properties that includes tocopherols, tocotrienols and plastochromanol-8. Plant oils could serve as an industrial source not only of tocopherols, but also tocotrienols and plastochromanol-8, which exhibit much stronger antioxidant activities than tocopherols. The aim of this study was a quantitative and qualitative analysis of vitamin E in certain plant oils. We demonstrated the presence of vitamin E derivatives in all the plant oils tested. The highest tocopherol contents were in pomegranate, wheat germ and raspberry seed oils. In general, γ-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol homologue. Tocotrienols were also identified in most of the oils, but their content was much lower. The highest concentration of tocotrienols was in coriander seed oil. Plastochromanol-8 was present in most of the oils, but wheat germ oil was the richest source.

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Vitamin E supplementation ameliorates the hepatotoxicity induced by Tramadol: toxicological, histological and immunohistochemical study

Ibrahim MA, Ibrahim HM, Mohamed AA, Tammam HG

Toxicol Mech Methods. 2019 Oct 29:1-12. doi: 10.1080/15376516.2019.1681043.

Abstract

Several deleterious effects of Tramadol including deaths were reported especially when used in large doses. Being metabolized mainly in the liver, Tramadol have serious hepatotoxic effects. This study investigates the effect of vitamin E on Tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats by evaluating the antioxidant biochemical markers, the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes.Thirty adult mature male albino rats were divided into five groups (Gs); G1: negative control; G2: received Tramadol 150 mg/kg, G 3-5: received Tramadol plus vitamin E in concentrations of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg respectively. Liver function parameters and oxidative markers in liver tissue (CAT, SOD, GSH, and MDA) were estimated. Liver samples were processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical (Caspase 3 and TNF[Formula: see text]) examinations. The results indicated that Sub-chronic administration of Tramadol resulted in impaired liver functions, increased oxidative stress parameters with decreased antioxidant capacity of liver tissues, severe hepatocellular damage (hydropic degeneration, steatosis and apoptosis) and strong immunoexpression to TNF[Formula: see text] and Caspase 3. All these effects were ameliorated with concomitant administration of vitamin E especially with high doses. The co-treatment of Tramadol-intoxicated rats with Vitamin E, especially in high doses, protects against hepatic toxicity.

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Vitamin E but Not GSH Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation and Enhances Sperm Production during In Vitro Maturation of Frozen-Thawed Prepubertal Mouse Testicular Tissue

Arkoun B, Galas L, Dumont L, Rives A, Saulnier J, Delessard M, Rondanino C, Rives N

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Oct 29;20(21). pii: E5380. doi: 10.3390/ijms20215380.

Abstract

Freezing-thawing procedures and in vitro culture conditions are considered as a source of stress associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, leading to a damaged cell aerobic metabolism and consequently to oxidative stress. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether vitamin E (Vit E) or reduced glutathione (GSH) enhances sperm production by decreasing ROS accumulation during in vitro maturation of prepubertal mice testes. Testes of prepubertal mice were cryopreserved using a freezing medium supplemented or not supplemented with Vit E and were cultured after thawing. In presence of Rol alone in culture medium, frozen-thawed (F-T) testicular tissues exhibited a higher ROS accumulation than fresh tissue during in vitro culture. However, Vit E supplementation in freezing, thawing, and culture media significantly decreased cytoplasmic ROS accumulation in F-T testicular tissue during in vitro maturation when compared with F-T testicular tissue cultured in the presence of Rol alone, whereas GSH supplementation in culture medium significantly increased ROS accumulation associated with cytolysis and tissue disintegration. Vit E but not GSH promoted a better in vitro sperm production and was a suitable ROS scavenger and effective molecule to improve the yield of in vitro spermatogenesis from F-T prepubertal mice testes. The prevention of oxidative stress in the cytoplasmic compartment should be regarded as a potential strategy for improving testicular tissue viability and functionality during the freeze-thaw procedure and in vitro maturation.

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Gamma-tocopherol ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced hepatic inflammation associated with NLRP3 inflammasome in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

Lee H, Lim Y

Nutr Res Pract. 2019 Oct;13(5):377-383. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2019.13.5.377.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Hyperglycemia-induced hepatic damage has been recognized as one of the major cause of complications in diabetes. Hepatic complications are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetes. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that gamma-tocopherol (GT) supplementation ameliorates NLRP3 inflammasome associated hepatic inflammation in diabetes.

MATERIALS/METHODS:

Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg. BW) in ICR mice. All mice were fed with a control diet (AIN-76A). After diabetes was induced (fasting glucose level ≥ 250 mg/dL), the mice were treated with tocopherol-stripped corn oil or GT-supplemented (35 mg/kg) corn oil, respectively, by gavage for 2 weeks.

RESULTS:

GT supplementation reduced fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic mice relative to non-treated diabetic mice. Moreover, GT supplementation ameliorated hyperglycemia-induced hepatic damage by regulation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome associated inflammation represented by NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain, caspase-1, nuclear factor-κB pathway as well as oxidative stress demonstrated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1, catalase and glutathione-dependent peroxidase in diabetic mice.

CONCLUSION:

The findings suggested that GT supplementation ameliorated hepatic damage by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, GT could be a beneficial nutrient that can ameliorate inflammatory responses associated with NLRP3 inflammasome in hyperglycemia-induced hepatic damage.

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A meta-analysis of peripheral tocopherol levels in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease

Ashley S, Bradburn S, Murgatroyd C

Nutr Neurosci. 2019 Oct 29:1-15. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2019.1681066

Abstract

Objectives: Findings from observational studies and clinical trials on the associations between vitamin E and dementia remain controversial. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to determine the difference in blood tocopherols levels between patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or age-related poor cognitive function and healthy controls.Methods: Standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and entered into a random effects model. Study quality, heterogeneity and publication bias were also investigated.Results: Thirty-one articles were included in the meta-analysis, which included analyses for α-, β-, γ– and δtocopherols. These results indicated that individuals with AD or age-related cognitive deficits and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had lower circulatory concentrations of α-tocophenol compared with healthy controls (AD: SMD = -0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.27 to -0.68, Z = 6.45, P < 0.00001; age-related cognitive deficits and MCI: SMD = -0.72, 95% CI = -1.12 to -0.32, Z = -3., P < 0.0005). Levels of β-, γ– and δ-tocophenols did not significantly differ between groups of AD and age-related cognitive deficits compared to controls.Discussion: These results suggest that lower αtocopherol levels have a strong association with AD and MCI supporting evidence for the role of diet and vitamin E in AD risk and age-related cognitive decline.

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Vitamin E preconditioning alleviates in vitro thermal stress in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

Butt H, Mehmood A, Ali M, Tasneem S, Tarar MN, Riazuddin S

Life Sci. 2019 Oct 22;239:116972. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116972.

Abstract

AIMS:

Thermal burns are the most common type of skin injuries. Clinically, the deteriorating thermal wounds have been successfully treated with skin cell sheets, suspensions or bioengineered skin substitutes. After thermal injury, oxidative microenvironment prevalent in the burnt tissue due to imbalance between production of free radicals and antioxidants defense aiding to destruction of cellular or tissue components. However, depleted antioxidant content particularly vitamin E after heat injury challenges efficient regenerative and healing capacity of transplanted cells. Thus, aim of current study was to pretreat human epidermal keratinocytes with vitamin E in order to enhance their survival rate and therapeutic ability under oxidative microenvironment induced by in vitro heat stress.

MAIN METHODS:

Keratinocytes were treated with 100 μM vitamin E at 37 °C for 24 h followed by thermal stress at 51 °C for 10 min. Cell viability and cytotoxicity assays, gene expression analysis and paracrine release analysis were performed.

KEY FINDINGS:

Vitamin E preconditioning resulted in significantly improved cell morphology, enhanced viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release. Furthermore, Vitamin E preconditioned cells exposed to thermal stress showed significant down-regulated expression of BAX and up-regulated expression of PCNA, BCL-XL, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), involucrin, transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) and filaggrin (FLG) escorted by increased paracrine release of VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF).

SIGNIFICANCE:

Results of the current study suggest that clinical transplantation of vitamin E preconditioned keratinocytes alone or in combination with dermal fibroblasts in skin substitutes for the treatment of thermally injured skin.

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