Induction of peroxisomal changes in oligodendrocytes treated with 7-ketocholesterol: Attenuation by α-tocopherol

Nury T, Sghaier R, Zarrouk A, Ménétrier F, Uzun T, Leoni V, Caccia C, Meddeb W, Namsi A, Sassi K, Mihoubi W, Riedinger JM, Cherkaoui-Malki M, Moreau T, Vejux A, Lizard G


The involvement of organelles in cell death is well established especially for endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and mitochondria. However, the role of the peroxisome is not well known, though peroxisomal dysfunction favors a rupture of redox equilibrium. To study the role of peroxisomes in cell death, 158 N murine oligodendrocytes were treated with 7-ketocholesterol (7 KC: 25-50 μM, 24 h). The highest concentration is known to induce oxiapoptophagy (OXIdative stress + APOPTOsis + autoPHAGY), whereas the lowest concentration does not induce cell death. In those conditions (with 7 KC: 50 μM) morphological, topographical and functional peroxisome alterations associated with modifications of the cytoplasmic distribution of mitochondria, with mitochondrial dysfunction (loss of transmembrane mitochondrial potential, decreased level of cardiolipins) and oxidative stress were observed: presence of peroxisomes with abnormal sizes and shapes similar to those observed in Zellweger fibroblasts, lower cellular level of ABCD3, used as a marker of peroxisomal mass, measured by flow cytometry, lower mRNA and protein levels (measured by RT-qPCR and western blotting) of ABCD1 and ABCD3 (two ATP-dependent peroxisomal transporters), and of ACOX1 and MFP2 enzymes, and lower mRNA level of DHAPAT, involved in peroxisomal β-oxidation and plasmalogen synthesis, respectively, and increased levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA: C24:0, C24:1, C26:0 and C26:1, quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry) metabolized by peroxisomal β-oxidation. In the presence of 7 KC (25 μM), slight mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress were found, and no induction of apoptosis was detected; however, modifications of the cytoplasmic distribution of mitochondria and clusters of mitochondria were detected. The peroxisomal alterations observed with 7 KC (25 μM) were similar to those with 7 KC (50 μM). In addition, data obtained by transmission electron microcopy and immunofluorescence microscopy by dual staining with antibodies raised against p62, involved in autophagy, and ABCD3, support that 7 KC (25-50 μM) induces pexophagy. 7 KC (25-50 μM)-induced side effects were attenuated by α-tocopherol but not by α-tocotrienol, whereas the anti-oxidant properties of these molecules determined with the FRAP assay were in the same range. These data provide evidences that 7 KC, at concentrations inducing or not cell death, triggers morphological, topographical and functional peroxisomal alterations associated with minor or major mitochondrial changes.

Read More