Since vitamin E is one of the most potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, vitamin E can play a role against arteriosclerosis through various actions. Then, we have studied the relationship between serum vitamin E status and risk factors for arteriosclerosis in Japanese postmenopausal women. One hundred and seven subjects (70.0±7.7 y) were evaluated for vitamin E status by measuring serum α- and γ-tocopherol (αT and γT) levels. The number of arteriosclerosis risk factors was defined by the existence of high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Median serum αT and γT concentrations were 24.32 and 2.79 μmol/L, respectively. In none of the subjects, serum αT level was below the cutoff value (<12 μmol/L) for vitamin E deficiency which causes fragile erythrocyte and hemolysis. While no significant differences were found in serum levels of αT and γT between the groups categorized by the number of arteriosclerosis risks, serum levels of αT adjusted by serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) decreased with an increasing number of arteriosclerotic risk factors (p=0.074). Serum αT level adjusted by serum TC and TG was also a negative significant predictor for the number of arteriosclerosis risk factors controlled by covariates associated with arteriosclerosis. The present study described that serum vitamin E level was positively associated with a lower number of arteriosclerotic risks, and its role for preventing noncommunicable diseases was suggested.