Tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation reduces hyperglycemia-induced skeletal muscle damage through regulation of insulin signaling and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic mice

Lee H, Lim Y.


Chronic hyperglycemia induces impairment of muscle growth and development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Since skeletal muscle is the major site for disposal of ingested glucose, impaired glucose metabolism causes imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation which adversely affects physical mobility. In this study, we investigated the effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation on skeletal muscle damage in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet with streptozotocin (STZ) injection (100 mg/kg) in male C57BL/6J mice. After diabetes was induced (fasting blood glucose levels≥250 mg/dl), normal control (CON) and diabetic control (DMC) groups were administrated with olive oil, while TRF treatment groups were administrated with TRF (dissolved in olive oil) at low dose (100 mg/kg BW, LT) or high dose (300 mg/kg BW, HT) by oral gavage for 12 weeks. TRF supplementation ameliorated muscle atrophy, plasma insulin concentration and homeostatic model assessment estimated insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Moreover, TRF treatment up-regulated IRS-1 and Akt levels accompanied by increased translocation of GLUT4. Furthermore, TRF increased mitochondrial biogenesis by activating SIRT1, SIRT3 and AMPK in diabetic skeletal muscle. These changes were in part mechanistically explained by reduced levels of skeletal muscle proteins related to oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal, protein carbonyls, Nrf2 and HO-1), inflammation (NFkB, MCP-1, IL-6 and TNF-α), and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl₂ and caspase-3) in diabetic mice. Taken together, these results suggest that TRF might be useful as a beneficial nutraceutical to prevent skeletal muscle atrophy associated with diabetes by regulating insulin signaling via AMPK/SIRT1/PGC1α pathways in type 2 diabetic mice.

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