Vitamin E Analogue Protects Red Blood Cells against Storage-Induced Oxidative Damage

Antosik A, Czubak K, Cichon N, Nowak P, Zbikowska H



To investigate i) the effects of Trolox® or mannitol, which represent two different classes of antioxidants, on oxidative changes generated in manually isolated red blood cells (RBCs) from citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) preserved whole blood, followed by up to 20 days refrigerated storage, and ii) whether Trolox supplemented to the blood bank-manufactured saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) preserved RBC units would offer better storage conditions compared with SAGM alone.


The percentage of hemolysis and extracellular activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was measured to assess RBC membrane integrity. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were quantified by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), Ellman’s reagent and 2, 2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS.+) based assay, respectively.


Trolox was little more effective than mannitol in protecting against progressive RBC hemolysis. Trolox (0.125-3.125 mmol/l) inhibited storage-induced leakage of LDH, lipid peroxidation, and to a lesser extent GSH depletion. Mannitol at these concentrations neither inhibited TBARS formation nor prevented GSH depletion. RBC units stored in SAGM-Trolox had significantly lower hemolysis, LDH leakage, and lipid peroxidation level compared to RBCs stored in SAGM.


There is evidence of the beneficial effects of supplementing RBC-additive solutions with membrane-interacting antioxidants such as vitamin E analogues.

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